During the whole service life, the roof must protect the dwelling from rain, snow, wind, scorching sun rays and winter frosts, keeping warm and cozy in the house. With the tasks set, only the properly designed roof for a private house will cope. Types of roofs in the structure include many different options for accommodation, each of which must take into account all the architectural nuances of house building, and also be relevant in a particular climate zone.
Contents 1 Existing varieties of roofs of houses 2 Types of roofs for private houses: we select the optimal grade 2.1 The use of roof coverings depending on the roof slope 3 Classification of roof types according to the frame construction 4 Roof roof of a private house. Photo and description of structures 4.1 Types of attic roofs. Photo of private houses with functional roof 4.2 Warming and waterproofing roof skylights 5 Roof for a private house. Types of roofs by design: shape matters 5.1 Beautiful roofs of private houses: photo gallery of various options
Existing varieties of roofs
To choose the right and reliable roof – the mission is serious and responsible. After all, it is being built not for one season, but for decades. In addition, a beautiful roof is also a decent appearance of your house. Photos of private houses, beautiful roofs of which perfectly complete the architectural composition, is a vivid confirmation of this. Also, each developer strives to give the roof of the constructed house a rational form that can transfer all the vagaries of the weather.
Forms of roofs for private houses, photos of which can be found on the Internet, are remarkable for their variety. Numerous design models can be the basis for bold ideas and help determine the choice. Modern roof projects of private houses allow you to realize the most original ideas in any style.
Before you decide on the best option for the roof of a private house, you should familiarize yourself with the existing forms and design features of the roofs. The main criteria for which roofs of different types are classified are:
- roof slope;
- form of construction;
- material of the roof.
How ideal this or that type of roof for a house is suitable depends on the correct selection of all three parameters. The main factor influencing the construction of the roof is the climate zone. Features of climate and will affect the slope of the structure, its shape and choice of roofing material. There is no sense in constructing a roof with a slight bias in the area where a large amount of snow falls: they will accumulate and destroy the structure.
Flat roofs are relatively inexpensive in performance, since in this case, minimal material and construction costs will be required. You do not have to worry that the wind will break the roof. Many on flat roofs equip additional open areas for various needs. But it should be borne in mind that precipitation will spoil such a roof, forming a puddle on the surface.
Helpful advice! To ensure a flat construction of natural water drainage, it is recommended to pour a layer of expanded clay at a slight angle.
There is also a division of the roofs into an unexploited and exploited, attic and bescherdachnuyu. Operated roofs are just used as recreational and sports grounds, covering them with special material. The area of this roof, as a rule, is equal to the area of the house itself, so many owners think about the rational use of this space. A serious disadvantage is the insecurity of the coating from precipitation.
Attic structures are called when the distance between the ceiling and the roof surface is not more than 1.5 m. Usually, the space under such a roof is exploited for technical purposes. Uncovered roofs are used when there is a plan to use the space under the roof as a living room – an attic. In addition, such an additional floor can be built on an existing house.
In a large group of different types of roofs in geometric shape and the number of skates. A pitched roof is called if its inclination angle exceeds 10 °. Roofs come with one, two and four rays. More complex designs have combined skates – these are hipped roofs, multi-cliff roofs. Less often in private construction there are dome or conical models. Roofs, including several different forms, are called combined.
Types of roofs for private houses: we select the optimal grade
Depending on the slope, the roofs are distinguished by flat and sloping roofs. Under the slope is understood the angle of inclination of the slope relative to the horizon line. It is measured in degrees or as a percentage of the height of the roof to the length of the span. Thus, the 100% slope corresponds to 45 °. For the convenience of translating these indicators, a special table has been developed.
The main reason for the bias is timely removal of precipitation from the roof. Roofs with a slight bias (up to 1%) will often leak and cause inconvenience to the owners. In addition, in terms of surface design, such roofs do not look aesthetically pleasing to private houses. Photos of flat roofs indicate that most often these structures are used for huts, garages and outbuildings.
Correlation table of degree of angle to percentage of roof slope:
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In addition to precipitation, the roof is affected by the wind. As the slope is increased by 20-30 °, the wind load increases by a factor of 5. And if the slope is small, the wind can penetrate the roof through the joints of the coating and easily break the structure. With the help of a competently selected roof project of a private house, you can get the right angle of gradient and avoid possible consequences of the elements.
Helpful advice! When choosing a roof option, it should be borne in mind that the maximum snow load on the roof is achieved when the slope is 30°. That the roof was capable of self-cleaning, the slope should be 45 °
In order to correctly determine the required slope, it is necessary to calculate the ratio of the size of the ridge to ½ the width of the house. The resulting value is multiplied by 100 – this is the size of the roof slope. For the convenience of determining the angle of the roof, professional builders use special calculations and graphs. They can be easily found on the Internet. As for the cost of building a roof, the more slant, the more expensive construction will cost.
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Despite the fact that the construction of pitched roofs is more expensive, for each developer in priority will be the reliability of the roof, rather than the cost of its construction. Thus, the right type of roof of a private house will be a sloping model. The slope of such a roof will be conditioned by the wind and snow load on the structure, as well as an attractive appearance. In addition, the angle of inclination is determined using a particular roofing. To stack each of the types of material, manufacturers recommend a corresponding bias.
Using roofing depending on the roof slope
To ensure that the roof has become a reliable protection for the house, in choosing the roof covering, it is necessary to take into account the angle of slope of the skates:
- Slate (asbestos cement wavy sheets) – this coating can be used with a roof slope of 13 to 60 °. If the angle of inclination is less than 13 °, water will seep into the joints, and in winter – snow will clog. This will lead to a significant reduction in the life of the roof;
- ceramic tiles – the optimal slope for this material lies in the range of 30 to 60 °. When laying such roof tiles on roofs, the slope of which is less than 25 °, measures should be taken to improve ventilation and waterproofing;
- metal tile – the popularity of the use of this material for the roof of a private house (the photo is confirmed) is very high. In addition to a number of advantages, when laying a metal tile, the maximum angle of inclination is not normalized. The minimum slope is 15 °;
- Profiled sheeting – used mainly for household buildings. Laying is carried out at a slope of 10 ° without a limit;
- bituminous tiles – the coating is applicable for roofs with a slope of more than 12 °. The maximum value of the angle of inclination is unlimited. Suitable for roofs of intricate shape, because it perfectly repeats the surface of any curvature;
- bitumen slate – corrugated sheets of this material are used with a slope of 5 °. There is no maximum restriction, however, the pitch of the crate depends on the angle of inclination, and at a slope of 5 to 10 ° it will be necessary to equip the solid flooring;
- Folded steel roof – this material is laid with slopes starting from 20 °. The maximum limitation of the angle of inclination is absent.
Helpful advice! When choosing a roof covering, one should adhere to this rule: the denser the structure of the material, the smaller the angle of inclination of the roof slopes.
Given the slope of the roof when using roofing, it is possible to achieve high-quality laying of the material, preventing leaks and extending the life of the entire structure.
Classification of roof types according to the frame design
Pitched roofs, depending on the configuration of the frame, can have different shapes with specific features. There are the following types of roofs:
- gable ;
One-run option. Such a roof has a fairly simple structure. The only slope of it is located between two walls, having different heights. The greater the difference between the height of the walls, the greater the slope at the roof. Any materials can be used for its erection. In private construction it is mainly used for household blocks, garages or small garden houses.
Helpful advice! For private houses, single-pitched roofs are used if it is necessary to reduce water or snow removal to the roadway or sidewalk.
Photos of the flat roof of a private house often illustrate the unpresentable appearance of the structure, especially if the structure is not high. In addition, this option almost eliminates the possibility of equipping the attic. But in the modern design of buildings this option of the roof is quite popular.
Gable roof. The form of the gable roof is a structure of two skates connected to each other by means of a ridge. This roof is the most common among pitched models for private houses. A photo of the types of roofs in a two-stage design illustrates that the rajids can be arranged both symmetrically and with different slopes. The length of the slope can also be different.
Due to the fact that under these roofs you can equip the attic or attic, they are considered quite practical. Elements of the walls of the structure, which limit the attic or attic room, are called pediments. Gable roof structures provide unhindered precipitation and minimize the possibility of leakage. It should be noted that in regions where wind storms are frequent, the roof can be thwarted due to poor streamlining.
Mansard construction. Such a roof is a kind of gable construction with a broken profile. Each skate of the attic roof has two levels: the upper ramp with a gentle slope, the lower one with the falling one. The main advantage of such a roof is the possibility of maximum use of space under the roof. In view of the fact that the structures are unstable to strong winds, the projects of the roof roofs of private houses, additional fixation of the roof covering in the area of the falling slope is assumed.
Helpful advice! If the attic room is small, designers recommend not to hem the ceiling. Interior decoration can be done up to the ridge, which will add room to the spaciousness.
Hip roof. This type of roof is a combination of a gable and a hipped structure. Here, the pediments replace the rays in the form of a triangle, which are called hips. The other two rays have the shape of an isosceles trapezoid. The upper parts of the skates are equipped with dormer windows. The frame structure can be built on a rectangular base. The space under the roof can also be used under the attic.
The hinged roof has a streamlined shape, perfectly self-cleaning and resists winds, but differs by a more complex design of the rafter system. In this regard, the construction of such a roof is recommended to be commissioned only by specialists. As for the cost of construction, it should be noted that during construction, a large percentage of roofing waste and a significant cost of dormer windows are observed.
Semi-holm constructions. Intermediate model between the hip and gable roof. A feature of this design is that the gable roof is covered with a small half-shaft at the top, which protects the horse from the wind load. The streamlining of this form makes it appropriate to erect such roofs in regions where strong wind gusts predominate.
The appearance of the roof is quite attractive in terms of design. In the triangular parts of the pediments, it is possible to equip the dormer windows of a full size. Semi-wales serve as decorative elements. According to the design, this type of roof is rather complicated and involves the participation of professionals.
Tent roof models. One of the varieties of hip construction includes a tent roof. Such a model has 3 or more slopes of a triangular shape that converge at the top at one point. All the slopes are symmetric to each other. Shatrovye roofs are used in cases where houses have the right shape of a square or a polygon. They are very attractive externally.
The tent structure is quite resistant to winds. The complexity of erecting the rafter system is explained by a strictly symmetrical geometric form of the roof. If the sheet material acts as a covering, the amount of waste will be large. The cost will affect the installation of attic windows.
Helpful advice! To make the hip roof look aesthetically attractive, it is recommended to use roof tiles as roofing.
Multi-clipped roofs. Such roofs are considered to be one of the most complex structures with respect to the construction of the rafter system and the laying of the roofing. This is due to the presence of a large number of ribs, ends and other structural elements in the device. It is used in houses that have a complex polygonal shape.
The appearance of the multi-cliff roof is very original. Thanks to modern roofing with a rich color palette, the roof can be made bright and lively. In addition, under such a roof it is possible to equip the side attics of a small area.
Dome structures. A dome-shaped or conical structure is a round-shaped roof with no fins, converging at the highest point. This is a rather rare kind of roof of a private house. Photos of such structures indicate that in most cases such a roof is used only for individual building elements, for example, such as small turrets or round terraces.
Vaulted roofing. The basis of this design laid the foundation of the rafters curved in an arc shape. As a roof for a private house is used very rarely. This form of roof is rational for large buildings, such as sports facilities or public buildings. In private building can be used as an additional element in combination with the design of another form.
Spire-shaped roofs. The main difference between such exclusive roofs is an acute angle created by sharp slopes. The construction of the spire takes a long time, because here it is very necessary to choose the slope and material for the roof. As a rule, the spire is erected as a decorative element, crowning domed roofs or turrets.
Due to its complexity and complexity of execution, such a construction is erected only by professionals. Spiers are very rarely used in the design of private house roofs. The photos show that they are mainly used in the construction of temples, Gothic buildings and other monumental structures.
Helpful advice! Even the only minor mistake made when erecting a spire-shaped roof can ruin the appearance of the entire structure.
There is still such a thing as a combined roof. Such roofs in their design contain several types at once, for example, a combination of tent, hip, multi-clasp and other forms. Combined roofs are complex in design, construction and further maintenance, but they always have an interesting and refined appearance.
Mansard roof of a private house. Photo and description of structures
Mansard roof type is an excellent option to advantageously increase the usable area of a private house. Dimensions of the additional room and will determine the shape and type of the roof skylight. The geometric shapes of such a roof can have a different configuration, and the roof itself can cover the whole building or a small part of it.
Types of mansard roofs. Photo of private houses with functional roof
There are several types of mansard roofs:
- broken line.
One-story mansard roof. Mansard roofs in a one-stage variant look peculiar. Such structures are quite simple in the construction due to the lack of a skate and the complexities that entail its arrangement. The attic space is formed due to the different height of the walls on which the beams of the structure rest. The attic floor under such a roof is quite tiny.
Symmetrical attic roof. This type of roof is constructed on the basis of a gable model. The walls of the attic room in this version will have the same width and height. This form provides the possibility of installing in a room full of window designs and doors leading to a balcony or terrace.
The asymmetric shape. Such roofs are obtained as a result of the hip placement of ramps. It should be borne in mind that a room under an asymmetrical roof will have a small area. The outlines of the opposite walls of such a room will be as follows: two in the form of a triangle, two in the form of a trapezoid.
Shatrovaya attic structure. The room under such a roof can have a specific configuration: round, conical or pyramidal. In this regard, it is very difficult to fit windows or doors into the walls of such attics. Window structures of this form will need to be made to order on a special project, which will cause a significant rise in the cost of construction.
Helpful advice! When constructing window constructions in the attic room, pay attention to how they will open. Opening windows inwards and downwards can cause injuries to the person who opens them. Optimal is opening the window outward with the handle at the top.
Broken roof. If you want to maximize the use of space under the roof, the right choice is the choice of broken roofing. In this case, it is possible to substantially reduce the so-called dead zones, the area of which can not be used as useful. Due to the external fractures of the facades, it is possible to expand the attic space, while the choice of a direct roof limits the rational use of the space beneath it.
The broken structure of the roofs is distinguished by a small height of the walls of the rooms that turned out under them. Installation of such a roof is justified when the attic is built on the already erected building. In this case, you do not have to worry about the additional load on the foundation, the project of which did not initially presuppose the presence of an additional residential floor.
A roof is considered to be popular, the construction of which is based on triangular figures: upper and lower. The scheme of the construction of the upper triangles assumes both a hanging and a layered truss system, and the lower ones – only a columnar system. At the base of the upper rays are isosceles triangles, and the lower ones have in the base two rectangular triangles.
Warming and waterproofing roof skylights
The design of this or that mansard roof depends on the load, which will be exposed to the roof top and bottom. It should not be forgotten that warm air flows rise and settle in the form of condensate on the inner surface of the roof. Therefore, the technology of erecting attic roofs of private houses must necessarily take into account the qualitative heat, steam and waterproofing.
Helpful advice! When building a roof skylight, pay attention to the distribution of ventilation risers and chimneys: do not allow them to be located in valleys.
To stay in the attic was comfortable, it is necessary to use such thermal insulation material, which will contribute to this regardless of the time of year. If the roofing cake is made in compliance with all technological rules, the microclimate in the room will be normal.
Make the right choice of thermal insulation materials will help you to know their main characteristics, which include:
- resistance to temperature changes;
- low thermal conductivity;
- moisture resistance;
- invulnerability to mechanical stress;
- ecological compatibility;
- fire safety;
- density up to 250 kg / m³.
The technology of heat insulation in the attic is similar to that of ordinary roofs, however, due to certain criteria, it is subject to increased requirements. The role of walls in the attic rooms is performed by skates and pediments, so they overheat in the summer and quickly cool in the cold season. Therefore, the sequence of layers of the pie should be strictly observed:
- Steam insulation layer.
- A material of a heater.
- Ventilation (air) gap.
- Waterproofing layer.
- Roofing coating material .
Applying a heater, you should pay attention to its thermal conductivity (the ability to retain and let heat). The lower the thermal conductivity index, the better the material will keep the heat in the room, protecting it from cooling. Mansard roofs are more susceptible to heat loss in the winter, as the heat flows go up, approaching the roofing.
In winter such a process is observed: the snow covering the roof surface serves as a kind of heat insulator. If the heat loss is large, the snow on the roof begins to melt, turning into a dense crust of ice, which does not delay heat and creates an additional load on the roof. Properly laid insulation will not allow the melting of snow and the formation of ice.
In a strong heat, the attic room is very hot. To avoid this, arrange a thermal insulation from the inside. The number of layers for internal protection depends on the properties of the material. For these purposes, they usually use: polyurethane foam, mineral wool, extruded polystyrene, slag wool, glass wool, froth glass. From natural heaters used straw, slag, wood shavings, reed panels.
Roof for a private house. Types of roofs by design: shape matters
Modern roof design involves a variety of different and original designs. The shape of the roof determines not only the proper degree of protection of the house from external influences, but also provides architectural expressiveness. In private construction, the choice of construction is limited only by the financial possibilities of the owner of the house, which makes it possible to become the main decorative element in the decoration of the whole house.
Beautiful roofs of private houses: photo gallery of various options
Unambiguously advise the optimal type of roof can be, considering not only the technology of erection, but also the wishes of the owner of the house. Architectural preferences in the private sector also depend on the location where the house is located, as long ago each region was different in its style and originality. To know what are the roofs of private houses (a photo of numerous options are available on the Internet), it is necessary to study this question, after which the choice of the most acceptable option will not be difficult.
Despite the simple design, there are many ways to combine a flat roof with a modern design style of private construction. A monoscale version of the roof has a small set of components and does not require a robust financial investment. In the design of flat roofs, many use a new original direction – gardening. Covered with flowers and greenery, the roof will add a portion of romance to the whole house.
The most popular in country villages is a gable roof. Photos of private houses show typical models of gable structures. The original gable roof with slopes, excellent in length and slope, is more strict classical model with symmetrical oblique planes. An important detail is the possibility of equipping the attic under the gable roof of a one-story private house. Photo describes the simplicity and functionality of this type of roof.
Photos of hip roofs of private houses indicate that this design of the roof is mainly used for large cottages. Houses with such roofs look more solid and presentable. Due to the lack of gable constructions in the construction of gables, the height of houses with a hip roof visually seems smaller, but this feeling is fully compensated for by the presence of mansard and dormer windows. They perfectly illuminate the attic space and make the facade of the whole house more picturesque.
Exceptional ergonomic advantages include broken roof structures. Photos of broken roofs of private houses illustrate the maximum efficiency of using useful space. Despite the fact that the construction of such a design entails high costs, these models are actively used in private construction.
Helpful advice! Those who dream of a two-story cottage, but limited financially, it is worth paying attention to the roof skylights. This will be an excellent option with minimal investment.
Lovers of unusual design can not be better than multi-cloak roof. Such designs can be attributed to real masterpieces. Their uniqueness consists in a large number of ribs, faces, forceps and rays. This form of roof has become popular in modern private construction of cottages with mansard rooms. If a successful project is selected, it is possible to erect a unique design, associated with the roofs of fairy-tale houses.
Having considered all the variants of roofs for private houses and carefully sorting out the features and advantages of each of them, you can make the best decision in your case. The main thing – your house should be under reliable protection.