This article discusses in detail the nuance system installation, as the correct slope of sewer at 1 meter: building codes and regulatory requirements to be followed in practice, the optimal indicators for specific sectors, advice on routing of the pipeline. The text contains a review of common mistakes and tips to avoid them, and formulas that rely at design time line for wastewater.
- 1 Slope of the sewer at 1 meter: SNiP and its role in system design
- 1.1 How to avoid mistakes in the installation of the sewage system in the apartment with his hands
- 2 Organization of water supply and sanitation: a SNiP in the internal network and external
- 2.1 calculation of the filling pipes for the application of SNiP 2.04.01-85 with installation of internal Sewerage
- 2.2 Calculation of the velocity of the effluent in the domestic Sewerage network, construction regulations and restrictions
- 2.3 the arrangement of the outer and stormwater: SNiP 2.04.03-85 and its requirements
- 3 How to adjust the incline of sewage in a private home and correct installation of the system
- 3.1 circuit Design of Sewerage in the apartment and its setting
- 3.2 Features the installation of an Autonomous sewer country house
- 4 the design of the instrument testing of the systems of internal sewer and drains
The slope of the sewer at 1 meter: SNiP and its role in system design
Comfortable accommodation in a country house is possible only with a system designed for the removal and disposal of sewage. For these purposes the sewer stand-alone type (centralized for apartments) or septic design. Within the system move the waste liquid pipe is a pressure-free way. In other words, polluted runoff transported to the place of purification by gravity. This is facilitated by natural gravity, which is achieved due to the slope of the highway.
Important! Natural gravity only appears if the sewer is located under a certain bias. The system will function properly only if the slope of the sewer on every meter of the pipeline will comply with the requirements of SNiP.
The optimal ratio of the bias also depends on additional factors:
- the diameter of the elements of the pipeline;
- the material from which pipes are made;
- the internal and external placement of sewers.
Despite its apparent simplicity, improper design of sewage treatment facilities and discharge the sewage pipeline in the sewers to form blockages and traffic jams, and the system will not be able to fully carry out its primary task.
How to avoid mistakes in the installation of the sewage system in the apartment with his hands
When we are talking about the slope of the pipeline, it is important not to fall into extremes. There are only two kinds of popular mistakes made by inexperienced people during the construction of the sewer.
In the first case, the slope of the trunk is absent or not sufficient to move the fluid by gravity. The result is reduced flow velocity, causing dense fraction is not washed away but remain on the inner walls of pipes. There has been a gradual accumulation of sediment, which turns into a clog.
Partially sewage water with impurities of fractions of different densities stay on the walls of the highway, causing the pipe is covered with silt and begins to exude odors that penetrate back into the room. So you’ll have to perform regular cleaning of sewers in private house or apartment, where the installation is made in violation of the requirements.
Excessive inclination of the system also may create opportunities for frequent cleanings to prevent. Intensive flow of coolant with high velocity will not be able to capture solid particles from the walls and wash them. Moreover, in the process of moving water fecal fraction will be layered and compressed on the walls of the sewer. In this case, all valves and pipe joints will be subjected to severe loads, which increases the risk of breakage. It is therefore very important to stick to recommended settings assigned in the documents of the building regulations.
The organization of water supply and sanitation: a SNiP in the internal network and external
First and foremost, on the capacity of the pipe is affected by its diameter. Therefore, it is recommended to select a corner strip of highway on the basis of the size of the cross section of its elements. The larger the diameter, the smaller will be optimal to move water slope.
The minimum allowable angles at 1 m of the pipeline taking into account its cross section:
A section of pipe, minimalny angle наклона40,02550,27,50,013110,01150,0007200,0008
If the pipe diameter is 5 cm, then the minimum angle (0,02) after installing the system, the difference in height between the placement of the ends of a length of 1 m would be 2 cm.
Important! With the layout of the Sewerage in the private house it is not recommended to install pipe under an angle corresponding to the maximum permissible value.
Calculation of filling tubes for use with SNiP 2.04.01-85 with installation of internal Sewerage
Recommended settings for the arrangement of domestic sewage clearly identified in the SNP. These data are contained in regulations 2.04.01-85, which can be used as a set of rules and the basis for the construction of a communication system for the withdrawal of effluent.
The calculation of the index of fullness of the pipeline shall be based on the characteristics of the material from which made the elements of the system. Based on these data by calculations we find with what speed should move surplus water in the sewer to inside the trunk to avoid blockages. The level of fullness is taken into account when selecting pipes for the construction of the discharge system.
For calculations the following formula is used:
- N – level of fullness;
- In the height level of the water;
- D – diameter of the pipe.
The maximum value of the occupancy rate is 1-nice. In this case, the slope internal drainage is completely absent, and the degree of filling of the pipe is 100%. The optimal variant of the system is increased to 50-60%. While considerable importance is the material on the basis of which the fabricated pipe and its angle relative to the local treatment plant sewage – septic tank.
Products made of cast iron or asbestos cement, have a rough surface. The presence of texture on the inside of the pipes is provided with a quick fill. The main goal of such calculations is to establish the maximum allowable speeds in runoff. According to the standard minimum rate of displacement of the waste liquid is 0.7 m/s. the Minimum acceptable rate of filling of pipes is equal to 30%.
The calculation of the velocity of the effluent in the domestic Sewerage network, construction regulations and restrictions
For further calculations in the gravity sewer will require the following formula:
V (h/d)½ ≥ K, where:
- V – speed of movement of wastewater within the system;
- h – the degree of fullness of the pipe (the level of effluent in the lumen of the product);
- d – size of cross section of pipe (diameter);
- K – coefficient, which depends on the roughness of the inner surface of the pipes and material for their manufacture, as well as the hydraulic resistance affecting the flow.
For plastic pipe background ratio is 0.5. Other materials are consistent with the figure of 0.6. In practice, the consistency of the effluent and their number are not constant. Therefore, it is not always possible to keep the occupancy of the sewer and the velocity of water flow.
A useful tip! If it is not possible to calculate due to the lack of accurate data on the previously specified formula for laying plots that are not susceptible to calculation, it is possible to use the minimum angle of inclination. It can be obtained using the formula: 1/D, where D is the size of the outer diameter in millimeters.
The optimum pipe diameter for arrangement of domestic sewage is 40, 50 and 60 mm. unlike SNiP, the actual set of rules, which was approved in 2012 and sets no limit on the maximum angle of inclination of the pipeline. The minimum angle you can see in the table. For pipe with a cross section of 80 mm the ratio is 0.125.
The arrangement of the outer and stormwater: SNiP 2.04.03-85 and its requirements
Drainage pipes removes liquid waste from plumbing fixtures installed within residential buildings, but also collects rainwater from the site during heavy rainfall due to stormwater systems. Most often for the installation of sewer on the plot applied asbestos cement and cast iron pipes. Allowed the use of plastic bags with corrugated texture.
Pipes intended for the construction of the outer part of the sewers are of large diameter. For installation a separate document SNiP with the following requirements:
- if the diameter of the outer tube is not more than 150 mm, the minimum allowable angle of inclination of the line is 0.8 cm for each meter of the system;
- the maximum gradient of the drainage is less than 1.5 cm per 1 m of the sewage;
- if the diameter of the outer tube is 200 mm, the minimum slope of the trunk will be 0.7 cm per 1 m of the sewer.
Storm water inlets storm sewers are installed with a slope of 0.02, see Installation of stormwater takes into account additional nuances:
- the type and characteristics of soils on the site;
- the average amount of rainfall characteristic of the region where the plot;
- the total area of the drain;
- places where run underground communication system.
Please note! SNiP allows a reduction of the optimal slope drainages by 2 mm per each meter of the system if site conditions do not allow the installation of the sewage system strictly according to the norms.
How to adjust the incline of sewage in a private home and correct installation of the system
To the installation of the sewage system was carried out efficiently, to control the inclination of the system need special tools or fixtures. They will allow to perform measurements of the angle of the trunk and adjust it, if this indicator does not meet the standards or calculations.
For these purposes, ideal for construction bubble type level. And on both sides of the bubble must accommodate three labels that record the deviation from the horizon at 1 cm.
The process of installation of the pipeline in the desired position as follows:
- Installation of pipe with fixing only one end.
- The level of construction should be applied over the secured side of the element.
- Set the required slope of the pipe, focusing on the evidence level.
When the bubble level will stop at the desired point, the pipe should be secured to the other end in the installed position. As a tool for measurements of suitable construction laser level type and level.
The ratios of slope of the sewer in accordance with the type of instrument and diameter of pipes:
Type priorarussian between the riser and siphon (without ventilation), diameter drain pipe motimele slope value системыБиде0,7-130-401:20Мойка1,430-401:36Раковина0,1-0,8401:12Ванна1,1-1,3401:30Душевая кабинка1,6401:48Слив combined type (shower cubicle, sink, bath)1,8-2,3501:48Труба to drain from the riser—1000—Unitaza more 610001:20Центральный riser—65-75—
The circuit design of Sewerage in the apartment and its setting
Diagram of domestic sewage of apartment or private home should include devices that are sources of drainage. A list of this equipment consists of a toilet, sinks and washbasins, a bathtub or shower stall, and household appliances, which is connected to the network. Dishwasher and washing machine be sure to connect to the sewer system and water supply.
For the construction of the domestic sewage is recommended to use plastic pipes with a diameter of 110 mm and 50 mm.
Requirements of the building regulations affecting installation of sewage of the complex:
- the slope of the sewer is selected based on the pipe diameter of the Central riser, which is already installed;
- the minimum acceptable rate of evasion of the sewer is 3 cm to 1 m. p., provided that the diameter of the trunk does not exceed 50 mm;
- recommended pipe slope with the size of the cross-section of 1600 mm is 8 mm per 1 RM of gutter.
Please note! The sewage system in multi-storey buildings is set in a vertical position. Moving drains is carried out along the perimeter of the inner walls, while in the centre flow is compressed air. This approach allows to reduce the likelihood of contamination from sewage.
Recommendations for the installation of internal sewage system:
- it is not allowed to rotate the pipe, installed horizontally, at an angle of 90º, it is better to use angled bends to 45º;
- the use of right angles in the vertical system is strictly prohibited;
- the slight excess of norm of gradient, if the pipe length is small.
It is not recommended to make changes in the types of layout tilt system. This is indicated by the requirements of SNiP.
Features installation of Autonomous Sewerage in country site
External drain intended for output of polluted wastewater to the side of the septic tank. Autonomous types of systems for moving fluid do not use gravity. The polluted water is transported in a holding tank with a pump. For these systems provided certain requirements of the building regulations, which stipulate the maximum distance available for pumping effluents such way.
The advantages of Autonomous sewer.:
- the pipeline discharge of sewage is at lower depth than other types of highway systems;
- no need for exact compliance gradient, because the effluent moves through the pumping station;
- the system operation is based on the self-cleaning the internal pipe walls, so the problems with the blockages occur only rarely.
The existence of such benefits does not eliminate the need for reconciliation with SNiP when the installation of the sewage system. Regulatory documents contain the requirements for the optimal placement of the septic tank and other elements on the site relative to residential buildings, drinking water sources and other facilities. In spite of the small depth of the pipes, be sure to consider the level of soil freezing in winter.
When working with external drainage are taken into account terrain features of the area. Construction of drain wells should be placed in the lowest points of the plot. The laying pipe is carried out so that the end of the sewer mains are not located below the inlet of the septic tank, otherwise the waste water will not be able to get into a holding tank by gravity.
The design of the instrument testing of the systems of internal sewer and drains
After the installation of the interior and exterior of the sewer is completed, the act of testing confirming the system operation and regulatory compliance. This requirement is spelled out in one application SNiP 3.05.01-85.
To verify that the sewer pipeline system should be shed. To do this, at the same time at least 75% of all sanitary equipment that is connected on the site, subject to examination. If the Sewerage installation performed installation company, no such act can not do.
The data that is recorded in the document:
- the name of the system that will be tested;
- the name of the object construction;
- the name of the General contractor, the customer and the installation company, including posts and name representatives;
- information from the design documentation (drawings);
- the list of open device at the time of test and duration of test;
- data about the presence or absence of defects;
- signature audit Committee.
The installation of the sewage system can be done independently or using the services of professionals. In any case, it is important to adhere to regulatory requirements and technology to comply.
Sewage in a private house: the scheme, the embedding depth of
Features of installation of the sewage system in a private house and its order. The necessary calculations in the design of the interior of the sewer.
To obtain high quality results it is recommended to take into account all the nuances: from the angle of system and design scheme, ending with the peculiarities of soil subsidence, the correct choice of tubes, components and additional equipment. Timely cleaning of sewage, in combination with the optimal parameters of the highway will eliminate the likelihood of breakage.