Storm sewers are designed to drain from the curtilage of water that gets there by natural means with natural precipitation (rain and snow). The backbone of any drainage system is based on a special container, through which water flows. Trays for stormwater vary in size and material, they are used for the installation of a full drainage design in the suburban area.
- 1 Device and types of stormwater
- 2 Calculation of system storm drainage
- 3 Plastic, metal, composite and reinforced concrete drainage trays: types, sizes and features
- 3.1 concrete and reinforced Concrete drainage trays
- 3.2 Plastic drainage trays with plastic grille
- 3.3 Drainage trays made of composite materials
- 3.4 Metal gutters to storm sewer
- 3.5 Drainage trays with grids: the price of concrete and plastic models
- 4 Trays for stormwater selection criteria
- 5 the Installation of concrete, metal or plastic gutters, with a lattice: the price
- 6 Care of the storm sewer of the trays
- 7 Fabrication of trays for storm sewer with their hands
Device and types of stormwater
The drain rain is a great number of components, each designed for specific purposes:
- the inlets to collect water – trays, funnels, linear trays;
- elements serving to move the rain water to wells or other destinations – pipe, gutter, plastic or concrete gutters for stormwater;
- the observation wells used to monitor the entire system;
- special filters that keep debris entering the system with water and protect it from contamination.
All these elements are simply combined into a single system, the type of which depends on circumstances or personal preference. Storm sewers may be laid at a shallow depth in the ground, or mounted on the surface.
According to the method of collection of water, storm sewer may be point or linear. In the first case the rain gauges installed under the ground with the release of under the drain. A hole through which the system water flows must be protected with a special grate to keep debris. The linear drain is mounted on the surface and is a trench of shallow depth, designed for the installation of drainage trays. In the second case, grating for gutters laid along the entire length of the system and perform the same protective function, in point of sanitation.
The point system is good in that case, when rain or melt water must be drained from the surface of the roof. If you need effective water drainage from a large area, it makes sense to device a linear system, as it is able to cover a large area, and its installation is relatively simple.
Please note! When constructing storm sewer of any type should be taken into account that the trays must be laid at a bias to the direction in which planned allocation of water.
The calculation of the storm drainage system
The device of the storm Sewerage of the trays with your hands is relatively simple, but its implementation will need to perform a number of calculations. These calculations will not only more accurately design the system, but also to save finances by purchasing exactly the amount of items that need to maximize drainage.
For the calculation of storm sewer will require the following information:
- the frequency of precipitation in your area as well as the capacity of the snow cover. The last parameter necessary for the calculation of drain melt water;
- average rainfall in the region. This figure is expressed in millimeters and corresponds to the layer thickness of precipitated water;
- the area of the drain. In the case of a linear drain it would be the total area, which is planned diversion water, and the dotted area of the roof;
- the location of existing underground utilities;
- a complete characterization of the soils on site.
To choose and buy the drain tray of the desired type only if the design of the system taking into account all these parameters, otherwise the storm sewer will not be as effective as possible.
The volume of water that the system should take, is calculated by the product of three multipliers: a numerical expression of intensity of precipitation, surface area (from which you want to divert water) and the correction factor. Rainfall data can be obtained at local meteorological station. The last value is a constant and depends on the type of covering areas:
- 0,4 – an area covered with gravel;
- 0,85 – concrete or concrete coating;
- 0,95 – paved paths and playgrounds;
- 1 – roof.
The depth of installation of gutters depends on the size of the product and planned the type of system. Thus it is necessary to consider the availability of on-site drainage system: storm drainage must always be laid above it. The average depth of the drain installation is typically 0.3 m tray diameter not exceeding 50 cm, and 0.7 m for trays of larger size.
Plastic, metal, composite and reinforced concrete drainage trays: types, sizes and features
The main element of the storm sewer system of any type are special trays on which the water is abstracted from the territory. They are made of various materials and differ in certain characteristics, the main of which is the maximum permissible load. In accordance with this setting, the trays are divided into the following classes:
- A15 – used for the installation of storm sewer in backyards, playgrounds, parks and pedestrian zones. The maximum load is 1.5 t;
- В125 – trays of this type can withstand loads of 12.5 tons and can be used to drain water from the car Parking in the garage cooperatives, as well as roads for cars;
- C250 – used in gas stations, car washes and in other areas of automotive service. Withstand a load of 25 tons;
- D400 – stormwater trays of this type are widely used in industrial enterprises of small size in transport terminals, industrial zones and on roads with high traffic levels. The maximum load is 40 tons;
- E600 – installed in warehouses, large factories, wharfs, logistics centers. Load 60 t;
- F900 is the most resistant to physical stress type, able to withstand up to 90 t is Used to drain water from airfields, military bases and places where used various heavy equipment.
The second important parameter that distinguishes between trays is their capacity. It depends on the hydraulic cross-section design, which is determined by its height and width.
As for the materials, for the production of the trays use the following options:
- Concrete or reinforced concrete.
- Various metals and alloys, e.g. cast iron.
- Composite materials.
Concrete and reinforced concrete drainage trays
The use of concrete or reinforced concrete gutters, makes sense when it is planned the withdrawal of water from an area constantly subjected to heavy loads. This can be a busy highway, car Parking and many other places. The price of concrete gutters is slightly higher than plastic, but less than composite, and their operating characteristics are at a high level.
In addition to the ability to withstand heavy loads, concrete products are characterized by high resistance to various adverse influences and weather conditions. They do not rust, endure constant exposure to chemicals such as fuel. In addition, the simplicity of construction guarantees long life term of exploitation. As a rule, concrete trays are made with the expectation of removing a large amount of water, so systems based on them have a high bandwidth.
The disadvantages of concrete and reinforced concrete structures can be attributed to their great weight, which greatly complicates the installation of storm sewers on their own, this requires the use of specialized equipment.
Please note! All versions of concrete drainage gutters have special grooves that are aligned when mounting, eliminating the possibility of occurrence. This means that the concrete trays are easy to connect with each other without the need for additional grouting.
According to GOST, concrete drainage trays can be produced with different parameters. Thus, the width of the hydraulic cross-section can vary in the range from 100 to 500 mm, height from 90 to 760 mm, and the length of the chute is normally 1000 mm.
Plastic drainage trays with plastic grille
The use of plastic trays for stormwater is often found in private construction, as well as in development of Park and garden areas, walkways and other areas that are not subjected to heavy load. This type is made from extruded polyethylene or polypropylene and has the following advantages:
- small weight of individual elements compared to concrete or polymer-concrete drainage trays;
- the simplicity and convenience of transportation;
- the ability to easily carry out the installation of plastic gutters, without the use of specialized construction equipment;
- resistance to moisture and to temperature changes;
- long term of operation.
In order to increase the strength and durability of plastic designs, they are supplied with special shaped edges. Products may vary in color and form. Supplied with plastic drain tray grate is usually made from the same polymer or a lightweight steel. The second option is stronger and more reliable.
Before you buy plastic drain tray grate and proceed to the installation of storm sewer based on it, you should consider one thing. Due to the smooth surface of the material, plastic products have a higher permeability than other materials. This means that system of water drainage based on them can be done with less bias than concrete or composite trays.
Dimensions plastic gutters may be different. The hydraulic section is usually from 70 to 300 mm, the standard length of one segment is 1000 mm. Weight can be from 1.5 to 20 kg, the maximum parameter is calculated, complete with metal bars.
Drainage trays made of composite materials
Composite gutters for stormwater manufactured in two versions:
- Polymer concrete – consists of blend of plastic and concrete.
- Polymer – a mixture of concrete, plastic and sand with the addition of special additives.
In performance composite trays are approximately in the middle between the concrete and the plastic. They boast a lighter weight than reinforced concrete gutters for stormwater, but not as light as a trough of plastic. Also they are characterized by high strength and wear resistance, but can not withstand so heavy loads like concrete. Like plastic products they have a smooth surface that improves the throughput of the system.
In this case, to protect the system from debris there are different grates for drain pans: cast iron or plastic.
When installing gutters from composite materials uses the same grooves as in the installation of concrete gutters, so that additional finishing of joints is not needed. The average price of a drain pan polymeric sand is 430 RUB., polymer-concrete – 970 RUB (in both cases meter product without the grille).
The hydraulic cross section of the grooves of the polymer ranges from 100 to 200 mm, made of polymeric sand – 70-150 mm. Length of one tray, as in other instances, standardized to 1,000 mm.
Metal gutters to storm sewer
Gutters for stormwater from metal – not the most popular option, and it has a number of reasons. Metal more than other materials subject to corrosion from regular contact with water. So this product lasts as long as possible, the metal layer must be sufficiently thick, which directly affects the weight of the structure. Usually as material for the manufacture of metal gutter is used cast iron, which is very heavy. Accordingly, the installation of metal gutters becomes impossible without the use of specialized equipment.
The price of the trays for stormwater from metal also significantly higher than concrete and even plastic. So use this option only when you really need it.
A useful tip! A good compromise in this case is to use gutter with steel grating. The price of concrete drain pan with cast iron grate is lower than that of the bare metals, and the lattice of metal is characterized by attractive appearance and long service life.
Drainage trays with grids: the price of concrete and plastic models
The price per unit of product depends on the material of the chute. So, the price of concrete gutters for stormwater range from 1300 to 2500 rubles per unit and above. The price of a plastic tray for a storm drain starts from 500, and the concrete – from 1800 rubles.
For example, Vodootvodnoy tray Gidrolica costs 530 rubles apiece. It should also be noted that the unit cost of the products largely depends on the components that come with the chute and its size. For example, the cost of concrete drain tray with the lattice will be higher than without it.
Concrete and plastic drainage wells for stormwater. Types and characteristics of structures storm sewer. Rules of construction and a detailed description of this process. Types of wells for private homes.
Trays for stormwater selection criteria
Modern construction market offers a large number of varieties of gutter devices in the system of water drainage from the territory.
When buying you must pay attention not only on the size of the gutters, but on the following characteristics:
- The material of manufacture is one of the most important parameters, which directly affects not only the price but also the ease of transportation and installation, as well as the speed of adjustment of the system, which sometimes is very important.
- The availability of factory for draining water of a drainage device of the tray with a slope will stand in good stead where necessary to ensure water drainage on a flat area, and where there is no possibility to create the slope artificially.
- Quality grooves for connecting the troughs to each other – this parameter determines the tightness of the entire system if the pans are loosely connected, part of the water will go into the ground. By the way, when installing plastic gutters, you can use a special latch, which serves to improve the reliability of connection of troughs between them.
Moreover, you should pay attention to the main decorative element of the system grid. It should not only look attractive, but also to effectively perform its main function, i.e. to protect the system from contamination of debris. This grille must have a fine structure.
The installation of concrete, metal or plastic gutters, with a lattice: the price
The cost of works on installation of the storm sewer system depends on the depth to which excavation trench. Cheaper (about 1,800 rubles) will cost the installation of water diversion of small depth, i.e. a depth of 1 m. the Installation is deeper than 1.5 m will cost more – 3900 rubles and above.
Regardless of what material is made gutter for water drainage, the installation is carried out as follows:
- select the type and size of the trays, calculated their number and the degree of physical load on the entire system. Depending on the last parameter selects the material of the gutter;
- is determined by the depth to which will burrow trays. You can entrust this work to professionals or to make the necessary calculations themselves. Note that when calculating the depth of the trench must account for the extra 10 cm for concrete or gravel beds. Also, be sure to include the slope, through which water is discharged into drains;
- dug a trench or several trenches with a width of 50 cm and length according to the quantity of gutters;
- on the bottom of the trench filled with concrete or cement. To increase the strength of the base it is recommended to strengthen the metal mesh;
- after the pillow hardens, you must install heavy trays. When installing gutters, (concrete or other material) it is recommended to pull in the trench thread to align the gutter for her. Installed trays are fixed with concrete;
- to protect the linear system from clogging, the top gutter mounted on a special grid. The price of gutters, grids in the set is slightly higher than without them, but in this case, you can be sure of a reliable connection of these elements together. One of the best sets for the price – steel bars with plastic drain tray;
- if you want to filter the water not only large trash, but fine particles can be set in trenches special filters pescolanciano that will hold sand and other debris. At the locations of such filters it is necessary to provide a special manholes and structures to ensure that it was no problem to clean them.
Please note! If you decide to buy plastic trays for drainage, remember that they are fixing the concrete is required. In addition, on the sides of the troughs should be placed on a special grid to reduce the soil pressure on the wall.
Caring for storm sewer of the trays
For the system of water drainage from areas to function optimally, it is necessary to monitor and regularly cleaned. If you buy concrete drainage trays (or the other) and mount them from the open system, then fixing it just enough to remove the grille and clean the debris with a shovel or scoop.
If clogged the underground part of the sewer to remove the blockage will be a little difficult. Need to remove and clean filters installed to trap debris. If this measure did not help, is to use a special plumbing snake. Sometimes it is enough just to break into the formed tube hole, and the water itself will wash away the barrier.
In particularly difficult cases, for systems of the closed type is used for hydrodynamic cleaning. It lies in the fact that in the system under very high pressure pumped water. For cleaning of this type requires special equipment, but its use has several advantages. First, the water under high pressure removes all the blockages in the sewers, and secondly, it cleans the walls of the system, which reduces the risk of blockages in the future.
Manufacturer of trays for storm sewer with their hands
Despite the relatively low price of plastic drainage gutters, there is the arrangement of the system even cheaper is the manufacture of gutters with their hands. This will give the opportunity to not only save finances, but also to obtain a product with parameters that exactly match the needs of your site.
The manufacturing of drainage tray with their hands begins with the production of forms. This is usually used Board or laminated plywood with a thickness of 10-15 mm. of these materials is made U-shaped form, the elements of which greater strength may be bonded to each other with metal corners. If you use for formwork boards, their thickness should not exceed 25 mm, and the surface must be free of knots. To connect them better with the help of wood screws, they are well bonded to the Board under the action of the concrete.
After the main part of the form for the manufacture of gutters ready made molding part. The best way to fit a regular plastic water pipe, cut in half. Importantly, its surface was as smooth as it is on the semi-circular part of the trough will flow water. In finished form is filled with concrete mix.
For the formation of strong concrete, it is recommended to use the following materials:
- the filtered sand without impurities;
- crushed medium or fine fractions;
- Portland cement M400, characterized by a high level of frost resistance and strength (at desire it is possible to use other types of cement);
- rebar with a diameter of 6 mm.
To concrete drainage trays, the installation of which you will carry out to the storm drain system, turned out as strong as possible, the ratio of cement, sand and gravel should be 1:2:4 or 1:3:5. In the second case, the number of resulting concrete will be more, but his strength is a little lower.
Calculating the final size of the concrete drain pan, it is necessary to consider the installation of rebar. These can be single rods or mesh. The latter can be mounted with your hands, positioning the rods of rebar at a distance of 5-10 cm from each other and joining with welding or wire. After that, the obtained form is filled with concrete mixture, which immediately pressed cut plastic pipe. Parse the form and extract pipe can be a day after the potting mix.
A useful tip! For compaction of concrete and removal of air bubbles and surplus water can be used as a construction vibrator. If you are not in possession of such a tool, then stamp the concrete with a section of rebar.
Time complete curing of the concrete is 28 days. Then each tray should be carefully examined for defects, holes and cracks. In their absence, you can begin the installation of the storm sewer system.
One of the advantages of independent production you can find not only the exact required size of the concrete drainage gutters, the price will also be much lower than purchasing the finished product. However, if you decide to purchase for stormwater drainage plastic drainage trays – this will save your time. So the decision of whether to buy or make the gutters personally, it depends on your personal preference.