Thanks to economy of construction, ease of construction and sustainability, many people prefer wooden houses. A significant drawback of such structures is the increased fire hazard. In this regard, much care should be taken to approach the issue of power supply in a wooden house. In strict compliance with the recommendations safely and efficiently carried out the electrical wiring in a wooden house with his own hands. Step-by-step manual will also be in this issue very helpful.
- 1 Wiring in a wooden house with their hands: step by step instructions
- 2 preparation of a draft electricity at home
- 2.1 selecting the appropriate cable and electrical devices
- 2.2 Selection of the lead-in cable and a circuit breaker on the input
- 2.3 the value and the type of machine for single phase power
- 3 Wiring in a wooden house with his own hands, installation
- 3.1 installation of the switchboard with his hands
- 3.2 cable Entry into the room
- 3.3 Device electrical wiring in the wooden house: the rules internal cable routing
- 3.4 Wall mounting the wires in the routing channel
- 3.5 the Order of connection of wires
- 3.6 grounding and installation of the RCD
- 4 testing of electrical wiring
Wiring in a wooden house with their hands: step by step instructions
The main requirement for the supply of private houses, especially built in wood, is security. Installation of external and internal electrical supply system should be made with observance of all norms and rules. The documents regulating the conducting wires, are the Rules for electrical installation (PUE), Building regulations — the section “Electrical equipment”, GOST and other regulations.
Fulfilling the requirements of the regulations, it is possible to produce the wiring in the house with his own hands. Step-by-step technique of execution of works includes the following stages:
- the definition of consolidated power equipment and project execution of power supply;
- the choice of cable, electrical devices (sockets, switches), appliances;
- the implementation of the input power to the house, connecting the circuit breaker, the connection of the metering device (counter), electric switchboard;
- internal wiring cable;
- installation of switches, sockets and lighting;
- a device grounding system, the installation of an RCD (residual current device);
- organization of preventive tests.
Preparation of a draft electricity at home
To begin the development of an individual project must be obtained from the electricity supply company (RES) technical conditions. They will become the basis for works execution.
First of all calculate the total (combined) capacity of all electrical appliances. Next, gradually developing the scheme electricians in the house with his own hands:
- performs technical plan of the whole construction. In the wiring diagram in a private house are fixed locations (points) locations of electrical outlets, switches, lamps and electric appliances with a separate connection;
- for each elektrotochki select the type of cable leading to it. If you are using switches with two keys and sockets with earthing, then it is supplied to a three-core cable;
- the wiring diagram electrical wiring in a wooden house indicates the place of installation distribution boxes. Recommended for two adjacent rooms to use one box;
- the wiring diagram electrical wiring in a private house reflected the power of each device. If the device has an electric motor, the value is specified subject to the cranking power of the electric motor;
- all the lighting devices (chandeliers, sconces, etc.) are connected into one group, while more powerful devices (water heaters, boilers, furnaces, etc.) are combined in another group. For them, the expected summing up of the cable and connect through a separate machine;
- in the diagram it is noted the distance from the line of passage of the cable up to the opening of doors, Windows, and the distance from elektrotochek to the floor and ceiling. In the future it will help to prevent damage to the wiring during the repair work.
A useful tip! All the turns of the cable internal wiring must be performed exclusively under the angle of 90 degrees.
Thereafter, the calculation of the maximum power consumption of all electrical appliances when they are turned on simultaneously. Determine the rated load at the introductory (first during power supply) machine.
The selection of the appropriate cables and electrical devices
To properly make the electrical wiring in a private house with his own hands, avoiding complex custom calculations, you can use the “Table of the ratio of the cross section of the cable to an appropriate load,” electrical reference.
From the table pick a cable size that will meet the power of electrical appliances for each group. Each device attached description or technical certificate, where indicated consumed by it load. Based on these data, choose the acceptable cable. In order to determine the opening cross section of the cable, you must sum the capacity of all existing devices.
The most popular posting is the cable copper NYM. It has extra insulation, strong enough and easy to handle. In the case of aluminum cable, you have to consider that he is vulnerable to bending and often break when cutting.
To outlets supplied three-wire cord with ground, to ensure the safety of domestic electrical equipment. Lighting devices according to electrical codes also require its arrangement, though many ignore this rule. If in a private home is used for lighting the yard and land a powerful searchlight, the organization of ground — a prerequisite. This rule also applies to those who choose to perform with your hands the wiring diagram in the country.
Sockets and switches are selected on the basis of the calculated current value, the type of wiring (concealed or open), the connection block with a plug and switch is under the same frame.
The choice of the lead-in cable and a circuit breaker on the input
Calculating the rated load of all the alleged for the installation of electrical appliances, determine the opening cross section of the cable. For those occasions when you are upgrading electrical wiring, replacing the internal wires and machines more powerful, we should not forget about the cable on the input. Can happen so that its cross section will not be enough for too much power – it can cause a fire. It is therefore necessary to contact the appropriate organization to replace the lead-in cable. This can be done during the installation phase of the meter and its seal.
As for the induction machine, when the three-phase power supply uses three-pole circuit breaker. If the power is single-phase that occurs in 90% of cases, used single or two-pole automatic circuit breaker, breaking phase and neutral.
A useful tip! Introductory circuit breaker is selected so nominal that it does not cut off the power houses at maximum load and break the circuit to prevent short circuit.
The value and type of the machine for single phase power
The circuit breaker is selected on the basis of the following:
- determine the amount of power of all electrical equipment and calculate the value of maximum current, using the formula: Ihom = P / U x cosϕ. The value of cosϕ 0,8 take. To the obtained nominal current Ihom apply a correction factor of 1.1. The result is the maximum value of current at which the machine works. The automatic switch 25 And is usually enough to enter the house;
- to determine the type of machine, you should know a minimum value of the short-circuit current. The formula for determining the current in a single-phase network (220 V): Cs = 3260 x S / L where S is the cross section of cable (mm2); L is the length of cable (m). This formula determines the current for the longest area with the smallest wire cross-section;
- the ratio of the magnitude of short circuit current to the value of the nominal current defines the characteristic of the circuit breaker. The recommended machine to be installed in the house breaker with characteristic C. This machine works well in networks with a mixed load.
According to the wiring diagram in a private house with his own hands set opening machine after the metering device. Automatic switches are combined into one group of devices, metering devices, introductory circuit breaker and RCD in the switchboard are mounted on a special metal profile (DIN rail mount). Next, make the wiring according to the diagram of wiring in a private home.
Wiring in a wooden house with his own hands, installation
Wiring begin as soon as acquired all the necessary devices: cable, sockets, switches, machines, lighting fixtures.
According to the existing scheme mounted junction box, fix the point of attachment of sockets, switches and lighting devices. If the room is all walls will salivate finishing material, the cable is routed in a metal sleeve.
The installation of the switchboard with his hands
The casing of the electrical panel is fixed in a prescribed scheme. Then perform the following:
- mounted metering device in the housing of the flap;
- on a special metal profile (DIN rail) set opening machine. To two-pole machine down phase and neutral;
- the output terminals (the terminals) of the meter connect the input of the incoming circuit-breaker;
- the wire is put in and connected with the input terminals of the metering device (counter);
- DIN-rail mounted relay voltage machines for the different groups of power (sockets, lighting), RCD;
- clamps of electric appliances are connected to insulated cables.
Cable entry to the premises
Input power cable in a wooden house have to be carried out under PES and SNiP.
Introductory cable to have in the room in the air or under the ground. It should be noted that the air method is less expensive, however not quite reliable. In such cases, use self-supporting insulated wire (SIW). When the air entry method, a prerequisite is installing a fireproof wall of the sleeve through which will pass the input.
Underground wire is laid under the ground in a metal tube that protects it from all kinds of influences. Such cabling is to be coordinated with distribution utility.
The device electrical wiring in the wooden house: the rules internal cable routing
If the project includes an open layout, it should be noted several ways of installation:
- ceramic rollers for open transaction — this method is useful for laying the wire along the wall from logs. Would be appropriate in a retro interior;
- Metallostroy — this method protects the building from fire. Tubes should be filled with wire is not more than 40%. It is recommended to use copper wire which bends easily;
- cable channels, plastic channels are affixed to the wall, you can pick up a plastic tray of different colors to match the walls;
- the skirting Board with a special channel (gutter) — in this method, the channels are set plinth clips for attaching wires;
- mounting brackets — matched plastic bracket size section of the wire. This method is most commonly used for wiring in commercial and technical areas because of the unattractive appearance.
A useful tip! All penetrations of electrical wire from room to room through the wall must settle for metallic fireproof casings, through which extends a cable.
In some cases, the cable is routed under the floor boards using a metal pipe.
Wall mounting the wires in the routing channel
Possible with the help of the cable channels to mount the wiring in a wooden house with his own hands. Step by step instructions of laying the wires in the routing channel:
- produce the line marking the passage of the wire, according to the existing scheme;
- the cross section of the cable channel depends on the number of circuits placed therein;
- remove the cover of the box and attach it with screws to the wall or ceiling. The screws are fitted at intervals of two feet. The corners are additionally strengthened with screws;
- in the installed ground mounted junction box;
- necessary wires are laid in the cable channels, and a snap lid. In places of connection of sockets and switches leave the stock wires for connecting them;
- connect all the wires in the junction boxes that connect with the terminals of the machines, switches and sockets.
Installation steps can be seen on various photos of the wiring in a wooden house.
The order of connection of wires
The rules provide the connection of the wires inside the mounting boxes. Boxes are installed in places where there are branches from the main cable. Wires connect these methods:
- the connection can be produced with self-locking terminals (Wago). In this method, it is sufficient to remove 10 mm of insulation from the wire. Terminals selected according to the size of the section of the wire with an insulating coating;
- you can connect the wires with insulating caps for spiraling. In this method, the insulation removed from the wire so that the length of the exposed segment does not exceed the length of the cap. Inside it there is a conical spring. When the cap is screwed on the twist — coil spring securely clamps the wire and plastic sheath provides insulation;
- connection strand involves cleaning the cables from insulating coating to 4 cm thick and twisting. All the twisting, it is recommended to solder and wrap with insulating tape.
A useful tip! The number of wires in the network affects the system’s ability to transfer loads: the more connections, the lower the load capacity.
When connecting wires it is necessary to consider the color of the insulation. Red, brown insulation — wire with phase, blue — neutral (zero), yellow, green — ground wire.
Grounding and installation of the RCD
The modern equipment of home appliances can not do without such appliances as water heater, washing machine, refrigerator and many others. The presence of electrical equipment with metal case involves the mandatory grounding.
The order grounding the following:
- prepare three rods of rebar with a length of 3 m and a diameter of 3 cm is Dug a trench in the shape of an equilateral triangle with a side length of 1 m. the depth of the trench 30 cm Rebar placed in the ground at the corners of the resulting triangle;
- the rods connect the metal area by welding;
- to one of the corners welded a loop (eye) and using screw connections or by welding is fixed a rod of steel with a thickness of 1 cm.
- the rod is placed in the trench in such a way as to connect it to the grounding conductor in the electrical panel. Grounding conductors have insulation yellow-green color.
To protect people from electric current in a leakage to the housing of electrical equipment, use a residual current device (RCD). This device is mounted in the panel after the meter. On the basis of the value of the nominal current in select the network parameters of RCD, which reacts on the slightest leakage current. The presence of such a device is especially important for rooms with high humidity.
The ground at the dacha with his hands. The scheme of installation of electrodes. The scheme of location of the grounding elements and trim. Ground circuit in private houses, materials for circuit Assembly.
The nominal value of the current for an RCD is accepted is higher than the current automaton in this chain. The value of leakage current is taken based on the type of room. For bathroom the best choice is RCD with leakage current of 10 mA, for other rooms 30 mA.
Testing of wiring are carried out with the help of precise electrical measuring instruments specialists certified electrical laboratory. The set of tests includes:
- visual inspection;
- measure the resistance of the insulating coating of the cable;
- preventive measure grounding resistance;
- checking the circuit breakers;
- check the circuit phase-zero;
- tests of protective devices;
- check the wiring between the devices and the grounding.
Upon completion of a test report is issued. Time spent testing devices and wiring ensure prevention of breakdowns and accidents that can damage equipment, damage the entire transaction and cause harm to human health.