Despite the fact that the construction of a private house in Russia for a quarter of a century is not something exotic, customers, and sometimes even contractors, it is highly superficial attitude to planning and design for such “trifles” as the wiring of the power supply or planning of sewage drainage. How to make ventilation in a private home specialists often do not know, focusing not received in Universities obsolete knowledge 80 years and gaining experience in the field. But then arises the logical conclusion — if the designers themselves have grown, as the professionals, along with new technologies, “the man with head, hands, and patience” are quite capable of a single project, especially with the motivation of the owner.
- 1 the Ventilation in the house: requirements and principles of the device
- 1.1 Preliminary assessment
- 2 Natural ventilation in the house
- 2.1 Pull and available height
- 2.2 Enhancing traction at the exit
- 2.3 Access to fresh inflows
- 3 mechanical ventilation
- 3.1 Centralized system
- 3.2 Local forced ventilation
The ventilation in the house: requirements and principles of the device
The most “invisible” but very important part of a comfortable atmosphere is the ventilation in the house. With the appearance of plastic Windows began a massive boom in the installation of PVC bags with almost absolute sound and air insulation. However, the ventilation system of the buildings of the Soviet time was calculated according to the then sanitary standards taking into account the relevant materials and structures. Ventilation in a wooden house at that time was generally the most natural and absolute. Literally after 2-3 months the owners of the “silent” Windows started independently and haphazardly to solve the problem of how to make ventilation in the house, their hands punching holes in the outer walls, which only worsened the situation.
However, modern multi-apartment buildings built according to new requirements and standards, so this problem has disappeared for ordinary tenants. But those lucky people who build their own home, forced to consider this factor, and because the installation of proper ventilation in the house is not cheap, and in most cases the error will cost expensive rework not only the ventilation system, but will affect at least frame.
Installation obschedomovoy ventilation system with your hands is a realistic, albeit with restrictions. You only need to calculate air exchange, choose the type of system (natural or forced), to take into account the climatic conditions in the selection of the modules of the future system and, in fact, to mount it.
Since a private home is not a multi-storey skyscraper, the calculation scheme of ventilation in the house with his own hands does not require much effort, although in reality it is governed by five cross-Snips. In the crudest form, the calculation looks like this:
- in the living room area less than 20 m2, the air exchange needs to occur at a rate of 3 m3/hour;
- if the area of a room more than 20 m2, then use the calculation area is inappropriate, the result may differ from actual due to the specifics of the plan. Enough to use another method: consider that the value of the exchange should be at least 30 m3/hour per person;
- dirty rooms (kitchen, toilet, utility room, various store and workshops) require not less than 110 m3/hour. The exception is the kitchen with a gas stove, which itself too is actively using oxygen. Here the necessary flow with air velocity not less than 140 m3/hour.
These parameters enough to calculate the ventilation of a private house in ideal climatic conditions (summer temperature is +250C in winter about -50C) when using natural ventilation. However, at a temperature of -200C to replace per hour the air volume ratio in half of the volume of the house, equivalent to “heating” to 0-50C. You need to consider that the amount of energy used for heating is not a linear function of the temperature difference. Further efforts to heat the incoming air would be too expensive even without considering logistics. And even when the optimal parameters have to be ready for the most severe drafts due to sudden changes of air temperatures in different rooms.
It remains only to choose in advance what type of ventilation of residential building will be used: natural or forced.
Natural ventilation in the house
It is obvious that the country house significantly more of a city apartment, so the calculations can not think about the SNiP. It is sufficient to take the values of air is 30 m3/h per person and the total error in the calculations will not exceed 10-20%. To calculate how to make ventilation in the house, you first need to correctly distribute the air flow.
Natural ventilation in a private home can be arranged very simply: of all the “dirty” areas (kitchen, bathroom, garage, cellar, heating, technical rooms) air were removed with the hood.
Additionally, the garage is to equip the outlet gases “trunk” that fits over the exhaust pipe of the car.
In all living rooms (clean room) must be equipped exclusively with the inflow. Installation in each room of the extracts leads to wasting heat and creating drafts which are of temperature near the floor at 2-40C lower than on the level of human growth.
Pull and available height
To ventilation in a private house in the bathroom, the kitchen, the toilet, etc. were involved in full force, and permanently, it is necessary to equip these spaces with vertical channels. And the higher the ventanal, the better traction, so not very advisable to organize a makeshift ventilation scheme with an exit in the wall. Usually a standard design exhaust ventilation of the house determines the location of such channels in close proximity to each other so that they can be positioned in a common mine, and so they went to the roof as close as possible to the ridge. This provides the maximum height of each channel (i.e., cravings) and can significantly reduce the protrusion of the pipes above the roof surface.
In brick houses air ducts spread the same brick directly into the masonry interior load-bearing walls is the most cost effective but reliable solution. However, wooden and timber frame houses use brick exclusively for ventilation just impractical. It is enough to use the wiring for ventilation in the walls of your private home cheap plastic tubes and hoses of polyvinyl chloride or even it is possible to limit the pipes to the sewer: they are much cheaper and also noticeably stronger. In addition, the user arrangement in a private home ventilation from plastic pipes (photos, videos, illustrations and diagrams explaining them) in abundance can be found in the special resources of the Internet due to simplicity of construction.
Important! Architects don’t just try to avoid tubes for high output ventilation: because the channel output for proper ventilation in the private house it is always useful to sheathe and insulate. This eliminates condensation inside the channel, and will be much easier to defend the “exhaust” pipe cover against snow and rain.
There is one caveat. In apartment buildings in 90% of cases, exhaust ducts and sewer pipes have in common the mine. But for individual construction this solution to the question of how to make ventilation in the house, is highly undesirable. High-rise building because of the height always provided great traction, but low cottage under certain weather conditions may face the effect of reverse thrust. Sewage “flavor” around the house will be provided.
Ventilation in the bath with his hands: how to do it right. Why do we need ventilation in the bath, how to make ventilation in the bath alone, principles, devices, circuits, instructions, photo, video.
To solve this problem, the master often offered to establish at the end of the exhaust pipe opposite the air valve. Remember, however, that in the case of ice the valve often will be blocked.
Gain traction at the exit
Country house rarely exceeds a height of 5 meters, so that thrust can be corny insufficient. Therefore it is necessary not to forget to bring to the channel wiring. If thrust is not enough, mounting the fan grille on the “exhaust” pipe is just 15 minutes.
Important! Almost all home fans involve mounting on pipe with a diameter of 100 mm. And not every fan (axial or channel) will be effective, despite the stated in the passport characteristics. They are adapted to the horizontal current and unable to push the air high.
For vertical flows, the optimal centrifugal apparatuses. Despite the lower power characteristics, the asymmetry is connected to the axle housing of the device and three times the price, they “under-performed” until the last electron.
The fresh inflow
In fact, the inflow is provided mainly window frames, but rather conventional or hinged vents with intake grilles and the micro-ventilation. However, in winter the air comes cold, so the glass or the window frame can be integrated ventilators. Before you get into the room, fresh air from outside gets into the ventilation ducts, where it selects small amount of heat from the room. The efficiency of the ventilator allows, for example, to raise the temperature of fresh air from -200C to 00C, which will almost completely eliminate the effect of “cold floor”.
Because the house is built from scratch, it is easier and more practical to use wall valves, which represent holes in the wall, the overlapping spring-loaded adjustable valves or dampers. It is obvious that temperature and they don’t change, but nothing prevents to place them over or behind the battery. In this case, the design of window frames generally unimportant.
Important! Another issue is boilers, stoves and fireplaces as they consume large amounts of oxygen. If the boiler is already connected to a coaxial flue system, its special ventilation you should not worry. Otherwise, you just have to add the supply valves.
For the fireplace the ideal solution would be a private channel from the street, displayed directly below the combustion zone. This will provide a minimal selection of oxygen of the total volume of the room, the incoming air will warm up, and the fireplace will burn much better due to the influx of oxygen from outside.
The Russian climate in any case requires a competent heating and the natural ventilation in a country house sufficient not in all regions of the country. The problem of cold air in the vast majority of cases can be solved only by forced ventilation, which, in turn, can be both centralised and local.
In the simplest case, you use the budget option — be careful, as designers in an attempt to belittle the estimate often it is offered, when the whole pipeline network from the “dirty” areas is reduced to one point, where a powerful fan throws the air out. With this influx remains a natural through Windows and valves. However, such a system is fundamentally no different from natural, because the supply air enters the cold anyway. Exactly the same effect, but much cheaper, can be achieved if the kitchen and bathroom to install a separate “exhaust” fans. Obviously, it’s money down the drain, literally.
In this air handling system input and output air ducts converge in the unit, which may consist of supply and exhaust fans, heat exchanger, heater and automation. That is, the air as it enters, and appears forced. If for ventilation of a private house to buy the heat exchanger, the installation will not only provide heating of the incoming air, but also to significant savings of electricity or fuel. This is due to the heat exchange flows in the heat exchanger, represents the block in which the thin spun the tubes towards each other are two of the air flow is warm inside and cold from the street. For from tens to hundreds of meters the path of the warm air gives up heat energy to the incoming cold stream, which provides saving of 25-50%. In the summer the heat exchanger is turned off.
After the device is installed with heat recovery heater that automatic controls. The air temperature after the heat recovery is increased to a comfortable +10-150C. Automation adds the ability to smoothly adjust the independent input and output streams.
Local forced ventilation
The centralized system may perform additional functions, the main one being mechanical filtration of the incoming air stream.
But keep in mind its disadvantages:
- expensive equipment;
- the presence of a network of pipelines of large cross-section around the house requires a proper installation;
- the Central unit itself is pretty noisy and for this reason alone requires a separate technical space in 6 and more square meters.
However, for small houses and there is a reasonable compromise: arrangement of local ventilation.
The market offers a wide range of small unit designed for one room. They are also equipped with fan, filter, heat exchanger, heater and ionizer. Outwardly they differ little from conventional air conditioners, they require no air ducts, except that light output to the outside.
That is, in fact a few of these devices to completely “override” the dwelling. Here only to solve the question of how to do in a private home ventilation bathroom, toilet, kitchen and possibly the basement still need to install natural ventilation channels.
But this compromise solution, it is possible to obtain without recourse to the experts: will be sufficient to use instructions with diagrams and photos. Ventilation in a private house in this case can be made with your own hands.