These or other types of roofing are suitable for operation in different conditions and for different types of buildings. One-run option is not only economically profitable, but also quite versatile. This type of roof is suitable for residential buildings, outbuildings, garages and other structures. It is not difficult to build the structure yourself: there are enough materials on the network to consider how a single-pitched roof can be built by hand in a step-by-step manner.
Contents 1 Advantages and disadvantages of a saddle roof 2 How to make a single-deck roof: the choice of material and its preparation 3 Tools Required for Work 4 Sidewall construction: calculation of the number of materials 5 One-pitch roof with your own hands step by step: the order of installation and its features 5.1 Installation of roof rafter systems 5.2 Subtlety of mounting the Mauerlat 5.3 Installation of floor beams and forelegs 5.4 How to make a crate correctly 5.5 Roof insulation: the operating procedure 5.6 Laying of the roofing 5.7 General tips for installing a sump roof 6 Maintenance of the saddle roof construction
Advantages and disadvantages of a saddle roof
As for any other type of roofing structure, before installing a saddle roof it is necessary to study the features of its operation, as well as the positive and negative aspects of this choice. The advantages of this design include the following:
- the ability to use any roofing material. This is due to the fact that the value of the slope angle of a saddle roof can be minimal, that is, it can be completely flat;
- Less sailing due to the presence of one ramp rather than two. This type of construction can be used even in very windy areas;
- easy installation and operation. One-roofing roofing can be built easily with one’s own hands;
- relatively small weight of the structure in comparison with other species;
- skates can be located on several floors, thus creating a complex and original construction in terms of design;
- When you build a gable roof with your own hands, you save not only materials, but also time and money;
- This type of construction avoids the slope of water to one side of the house.
In addition, under the roof structure with one slope it is possible to equip the attic, although it will be less than under the gable roof. If we talk about shortcomings, we can distinguish such of them:
- The appearance is slightly less attractive than the gable construction. This disadvantage is easily compensated for in the presence of a good design fantasy;
- if you are constructing a construction with a small angle of inclination, then the area of the attic will be very small.
On this, the design flaws with one slope end. As you can see, the advantages are much greater, which is why this roof is very popular in various types of buildings.
How to make a single-deck roof: the choice of material and its preparation
Correctly matched material is the basis of reliability and durability of any construction structure. In the case of the roof you will need the following materials:
- beam or logs. Of these, a rafter system is installed , as well as beams and mauerlat. Therefore, much attention should be given to the quality of wood. It is best if the moisture content of the tree does not exceed 20%, and from the rocks it is worth choosing larch or other coniferous trees. The cross-section of the beam is selected depending on the size of the structure and its weight. In any case, the diameter of the beam should be at least 100 mm, and the section of the log is 120×120 mm. In order for the wood to resist the decay processes better, to damage parasites and other negative influences, it is recommended to treat it with special impregnations – this will significantly extend the life of the entire structure;
Helpful advice! If you choose between the usual beam and glued, the preference is worth giving to the latter, as it boasts higher performance characteristics.
- beams or boards for erection of the crate. Here the quality of the material can be slightly lower than for rafters. The main thing is that it should be dry and without a lot of knots. The thickness of the boards in this case depends on the type of material that you will insulate the roof;
- edged boards for the installation of the end plate. In the event that metal coating is used as the coating, the boards can be replaced with a special additional element;
- fastening materials. For fastening the rafters of a saddle roof and other elements it is necessary to use nails, anchor bolts and screws. If you mount the roof in places with a strong wind load, two different types of fasteners can be used in the same place to increase the level of strength;
- heater. It serves for the thermal insulation of the structure;
- steam and waterproofing materials;
- the roofing material itself. Here everything depends on the climate in which the roof will be used, as well as your financial capabilities and personal preferences. Please note that the answer to the question of how to build a single-deck roof with your own hands depends in part on the type of roofing material for the construction you choose.
In addition to the building materials described above, in order to make a soviet roof with your own hands as it should, you will need the following set of tools:
- hammer and ax;
- building level;
- roulette and ruler;
- a hacksaw and a construction knife;
- a construction stapler with a stock of staples;
- pencil or marker.
In addition, if you plan on applying special antiseptic impregnation to wood, you will need a brush or roller, as well as impregnation itself.
Single-pitched roof installation: calculation of the quantity of materials
Determine how much you need some materials for the installation of roofing can be quite difficult. Therefore, this issue can be entrusted to experienced professionals or at least take advantage of one of the special construction calculators. The latter in large numbers can be found on the Internet on specialized resources, so this should not be a problem.
If we are talking about a bar, its number and cross-section depend on the parameters of the ramp. The length of the rafters of a saddle roof determines the height and length of the beam, and the distance between the rafter legs should be in the range of 0.6-1 m. The thinner the bar, the closer the rafters are to each other.
The number of boards and their total length depend on the type of roofing material that you choose. For metal tiles, the bending step is approximately 300 mm, and for slate 440 mm. If the construction of a flexible roof is planned, the step can be arbitrary because of the special piling technology. For each type of roofing material, there are individual requirements for installation, which should be adhered to. Otherwise, the manufacturer of the material can not guarantee the effectiveness of its use.
The amount of materials for the windboard is equal to the total perimeter of the ramp minus its lower part, which will be covered by the cornice. The amount of insulation material is equal to the area of the slope. If you are going to mount a heater in several layers, the area of the roof should be multiplied by their number.
Helpful advice! It is recommended to use at least two layers of insulation, which need to be staggered. This will allow you to avoid the risk of so-called cold bridges.
The amount of roofing material depends not only on the area of the ramp, but also on the angle of its inclination. The latter depends on the characteristics of the terrain in which your house stands. For example, if you are building a roof on a plain, the ramp should be more flat, so that the wind blows snow and debris freely. But if there are trees around the house that slow down the flow of air, it is more logical to increase the angle of inclination so that snow and water drain themselves.
The optimum slope of the saddle roof is 20 °. In this case, you can mount the roof of any popular materials: slate, tile, corrugated board, folding, etc. At the same time you get the minimum level of wind load, which is very actual in a place with a strong wind. And if the angle of inclination is 45 °, the area of the ramp will be 1.5 times larger than that of a flat roof.
In addition, for some of the roofing material options, there are requirements for the maximum slope angle. What should be the slope of a slope roof, which uses a roll coating? Not more than 10 °. For the slate, this parameter should not exceed 20 °, and folding or tiling can be used at an angle of up to 35 °.
You also need to pay attention to the smoothness of the material. The more smooth it is, the smaller you need the angle of slope of the saddle roof. The calculation is carried out on the basis of how easy it will be to slip snow and various debris from the roof.
Shed roof with their own hands: drawings and photos, types of roofing materials. How to choose the right material. Calculation of the slope angle. Advantages and disadvantages of various roofing materials. Read more
Single roof with their own hands step by step: the order of installation and its features
In order to properly build the roof, you, in the first place, will need drawings with all the dimensions and parameters. Such drawings can be made independently, download the ready-made version from the Internet (of course, taking into account the parameters of its construction) or order them from professional builders. After the drawings are ready, and the building materials are bought, you can proceed directly to the installation of the structure.
It is very important to determine whether your roof will be ventilated or unventilated. The first variant of the construction is installed in residential premises and baths to provide a comfortable microclimate. Ventilation in this case is achieved due to the gap between the layers of insulating material, as well as special holes located on the sides of the roof. To ensure that ventilation efficiency does not decrease in winter, the roof must be regularly cleaned of snow.
Non-vented construction – an option for terraces, warehouses and other similar premises. It is characterized by a small angle and easy installation.
Installation of roof rafter systems
If we talk about rafters, then there are two popular options for their installation:
- Installation of the gable roof system with your hands on the walls, located at different levels of the building. This option is more economical in terms of money, because less timber is used. But also it should be borne in mind that in this case the load-bearing wall should be raised to the height of the roof so that it can rest on the upper part of the rafter’s leg. Naturally, rafters for absolutely flat roofing in this way do not mount.
- Installation of a triangular truss, which will combine rafters, beams and racks in its construction. At the same time, you do not need to build up load-bearing walls, but the wood consumption is much greater than in the first variant. On the other hand, the truss can be mounted on the ground, which greatly simplifies the installation process. The rope system of the saddle roof already made according to this scheme must be raised to the required height with the help of winches and other specialized devices.
Choosing you one way or another how to fix the rafters on a single-deck roof will not affect the period of its operation or the quality of installation, so this question depends only on personal preferences.
To install rafter legs, you must use special additional supports or struts. Their number and location of installation depends on the following factors:
- inclination angle of the ramp;
- the weight of a separate rafter;
- the distance between the junction of the roof and the wall;
- length of foot;
- type of roofing material;
- the type of material with which the insulation is carried out.
After the rafters of the saddle roof have been installed, the load on the load-bearing walls must be evenly distributed. Mauerlat is used for this.
Subtlety of mounting the Mauerlat
Mauerlatom is an additional element of the roof, on which rests the lower edge of the rafter’s leg. It is attached to the supporting wall or mounted between the beams of the rafter system. The material from which the Mauerlat is made depends on the material of the bearing walls.
If in your construction the supporting walls are made of bricks, then it is recommended to use annealed wire for the Mauerlat, but for walls of porous material – reinforcement, the length of which is equal to 2/3 of the width of the foam block. If you mount a support for the truss system in a house of a wooden beam, the anchor bolts are used as a Mauerlat.
Helpful advice! Mauerlat can be exposed to moisture. In order to extend the service life and avoid corrosion, it is necessary to put it on the waterproofing material, for example, roofing material.
Installation of floor beams and chisel legs
In addition to the Mauerlat, the construction of a gable roof system may imply the installation of beams, on which the truss leg will rest. In this case, the step of mounting the beam must be equal to the step of mounting the rafters. Regardless of whether the beam system is present in your design or not, the leg is fixed to the Mauerlat with a saw. The size of the gap between the leg and the Mauerlate should be minimal.
If the width of the span of the truss system exceeds 4.5 m, then in order to avoid the deflection of the beam, it is necessary to install the sub-spine legs. The place where this spacer is installed depends on the length of the span. When installing a single-pitch roof rafter with a large area, the installation of the sub-toothing legs is mandatory, otherwise you risk that the beam deforms and breaks down under the weight of the structure.
How to make a crate correctly
The cladding is a very important element of the roof, since it is later on it is installed heat and waterproofing, as well as other insulating layers. The step of the crate depends on the features of the construction of the saddle roof and the type of roofing material used. The board of the crate is fastened to the rafter leg with the help of conventional nails.
It is also important that the wood of the battens be dry, without wormholes and a large number of knots. For greater reliability of the structure, it can be treated with special impregnations that will protect it from the harmful effects of moisture and parasites, as well as reduce the level of flammability of the wood.
If you are planning to equip the attic, you need to allocate a space for the attic window in the design of the roofing. At this point, you do not need to do the crate, but you need to mount a pair of horizontal jumpers in order for the window to be fastened. They need to be made of the same material as the rafters on a single-pitched roof. How to make the window itself depends on your preferences.
Roof insulation: work order
When installing a saddle roof with your own hands, you can use any insulating material. The self-insulation is carried out in the following order:
- With the help of a construction stapler, a layer of waterproofing material is attached to the crate. Do it need to overlap.
- Then the insulation layer is mounted.
- A controllable grille is installed, the purpose of which is to separate the insulation layer and the vapor barrier.
- Fits the vapor barrier.
If your roof is not flat, it is better to use soft materials for insulation. They are easier to install and fill the voids better. When constructing a one-pitch roof with a minimum angle of inclination by their own hands, bulk solids such as sawdust or expanded clay will be more effective. They do not get wet even if the water drains under the roofing material.
The most popular and popular materials for roof insulation are mineral wool and foam. In the case of using them or other popular materials for thermal insulation, a layer of 10 cm thick is usually enough, but for cold regions this parameter can be increased.
This stage of the gable roof installation with your own hands entirely depends on the type of roofing material you have chosen. Here it is necessary to adhere as closely as possible to the technology that the coating manufacturer recommends. Detailed instructions can be found for any of the popular types of roofing materials, if you cover the roof with your own hands: step-by-step videos, widely represented on the network, will help you perform the work qualitatively.
After the roofing is mounted, it is possible to install various additional elements on the roof. For example, weathercocks, drains and so on. At this stage, focus is solely on personal preferences.
General tips for installing a saddle roof
When building a saddle roof, calculating the direction of the ramp should depend on which side the wind most often blows from. If you install the ramp incorrectly, the roof can easily be ripped off. That is why it is not recommended to install a one-stage version in the area where strong winds from different directions often blow.
When calculating the rafter system, you also need to take into account the climatic features of your region. The finished frame must evenly distribute the load, otherwise the roof may fail much earlier than expected time. Under the load is meant not only the wind, but also atmospheric precipitation. It is necessary to take into account the average annual amount of snow and rain. You can learn this at the local meteorological center.
When calculating the number of roofing materials, you need to consider that they will be mounted overlap. To obtain the exact figure, the overlap length must be multiplied by the number of sheets of material and added to the roof area. If you want to know how to build a single-deck roof in such a way that the material is used as efficiently as possible, be sure to take this moment into account.
Helpful advice! The smaller the distance between rafters of a saddle roof, the more weight the roof construction can withstand. But also it is necessary to take into account the fact that as the step is reduced, the weight of the rafter system increases. And if the weight of the latter is too large, the walls of the building may not survive it.
Maintenance of the construction of a saddle roof
In order for your roof to serve you as long as possible, and also could boast of attractive appearance, high level of hydro and thermal insulation, other performance characteristics, it is necessary to perform the following actions from time to time:
- Inspection of the truss system for moisture-damaged or parasitic parts. If a part of the rafters is damaged by excessive humidity, rodents or other adverse effects, it must be replaced as soon as possible or at least treated with special compounds. Treatment with antiseptics makes sense only at the initial stage of the defeat, and in particularly neglected cases you will have to completely change the truss system, dismantling the roof for this. To prevent such an extreme, preventive examination should be carried out regularly;
- periodic cleaning of debris from the roof slope. Accumulating, it not only increases the load on the structure, but also makes it difficult for the snow to fall in the winter. If you do not clean the roof of branches and other debris in a timely manner, the cover risks failing;
- replacement of leaky sheets of roofing material. If it is a matter of tile or slate, you can easily replace only a small part of the roof to restore its integrity. Note that if the roof has failed in some places, most likely, you will have to change not only the top layer, but also the crate with insulation layers. Otherwise, you risk getting a significant deterioration in the heat and waterproof properties of the entire structure.
Remember that with proper care, a single-pitched roof will last as long as possible, regardless of your region or type of roofing chosen. The main thing is not to save on building materials, and then the design for a long time will please you with attractive appearance and excellent performance characteristics.