District heating greatly increases the costs of housing. The owners of private houses choose Autonomous heating method. The best option for individual housing construction — installation heating two-storey private house with his own hands. Diagrams, calculations and reference model project do it themselves. The plan of heating of 2-storied private house — one of the components engineering part of the project.
- 1 Thermal calculation of the heating system of a 2-storey private house
- 2 Components of the heating system of a private house
- 3 types of heating systems
- 4 Collector in the scheme of heating of a two story house with forced circulation of coolant
- 5 Distribution of the coolant in height
- 6 Horizontal types of heating systems
Thermal calculation of the heating system of a 2-storey private house
Thermal calculation to determine the working parameters of the heating system — the total value of heat losses in the building, power equipment, number of heaters etc.
The power of the heat source is calculated by the amount of heat a house that takes into account:
- the area of heated premises;
- the climatic conditions of the area;
- the presence and condition in which the insulation space;
- the material and thickness of the exterior (bearing) walls, floors and ceilings;
- the design of the roof, the presence of a technical floor;
- the tightness and size of the Windows, the street (balcony) doors.
The components of the heating system of a private house
The boiler — heat generator in the heating system and hot water. The average standard power of 100 W per 1 m2 area, provided that the height of the heated space is not more than 3 meters. Provide up to 20% of the performance of the boiler to the unaccounted losses. Hot water requires an increase in capacity of 50%.
A summary table with the variants of model calculations of thermal power of the boiler, allows to compare the estimated results of the selection and models of generators.
Boilers can run on diesel fuel, coke, coal, firewood, peat, pellets, natural gas or electricity. The choice of fuel depends on its availability. More than 70% of consumers use gas boilers. Electric boiler (convector) is considered as back-up or combined option.
Iron or steel generators thermal energy is produced in floor and wall version. Stationary boilers are installed in a separate room, which is equipped with boiler, expansion tank, chimney and ventilation (in accordance with the standards and requirements of the gas service).
Wall-hung gas boilers fireplace and a separate room is not required. Oxygen for the combustion of gas supplied through a flexible corrugated pipe. Single circuit units designed for heating. The scheme of heating two-storey house with a Combi boiler provides heating and hot water.
Ways to transfer thermal energy boiler: forced circulation of coolant and natural circulation (non-volatile method of heating). The design of the boiler with two circuits contains a built-in circulating pump and closed expansion tank.
Carriers of thermal energy in the heating system: water, antifreeze or electrolyte carrier for electrode boiler flow type.
Water has a high heat capacity and density, but requires the observance of a constant temperature regime of the room in the winter. Homeowners who use the building irregularly, prefer as a coolant antifreeze.
Select the type of wiring of heating and type of coolant is produced at the stage of project development. Viscosity, expansion coefficient and heat capacity of the antifreeze slows the heat exchange process and reduce the cooling radiators. For coolant “antifreeze” is required to increase the capacity of the pumps and the flow section of the system.
Important! The presence of the antifreeze ethylene glycol limits its application in boilers Combi type. Some additives destroy parts of polypropylene, cast iron, nonferrous metals, rubber.
Heater — steel, aluminum, composite, cast iron or anodized radiator (battery), which gives up its heat and creates a favorable microclimate.
Heat dissipation and inertia depend on the material and dimensions of the device. The length of the battery designs change, adjusting the required number of sections. The valve (faucet Majewski) and a valve-controller, installed on the inlet of the coolant in the heater provide uniform heat removal design. Shut-off valve on the discharge pipe required for maintenance during operation.
The place of installation of heating devices designated in the normative and technical documentation: the perimeter of the heated space, under the window openings, near the front door. Thermal curtain installed at the entrance door keeps the cold air from the street to the house.
Ways of connection of radiators with pipes and tubing: single-sided, diagonal and lower eyeliner.
Number of radiators (I) is calculated according to the formula:
I=S*k1*k2*k3*k4*100/P (PCs), where
S — the area of the premises (m2);
P — passport value of the power of one section, (W);
k1 is the multiplying factor of the glazing;
k2 is a decreasing loss factor, which depends on the area of exterior walls;
k3 — coefficient dependent on the design and insulation of the roof (attic or not);
k4 — dependent ratio of the height of the ceiling (k4 = 1, when h = 2.5 m), the higher the inter-floor space, the larger the adjustment value.
Please note! The manufacturer indicates in the passport of the product design parameters: the internal volume, and the capacity of the radiator. The flow rate of the coolant in the battery capacity of 7 kWh 7 litres per minute.
The pipeline transmits, distributes, and returns the coolant to the boiler. Directional flow slow rough inner surface of the pipe, changing diameter orifice, turns. The value of hydraulic resistance determines how circulation (natural or forced).
The pipe kit (closed loop) ensures the integrity of the system. The boiler output is directly proportional to the flow rate, which determines the internal volume of the radiator, the capacity of the heat exchanger of the boiler and filling sections of the pipeline.
In heating systems of private houses use seamless steel and polypropylene pipe with a minimum coefficient of internal resistance (roughness).
Expansion tank for heating of closed or open is present in all circuits of the heating system of a two-storey private house. The pressure created in the pressure pipe of the circulation pump or the force of gravity, changes the boiling temperature of the coolant. Sudden boiling of water may provoke a spontaneous surge of pressure, the allocation of dissolved gases and a manifold increase in the volume (thermal expansion), which leads to the destruction of components of the heating system. The surge tank helps to avoid such problems.
The membrane separates a sealed expansion tank of the closed type, the water and air chambers. In systems with closed-type tank is mounted on the nozzle return pipe, before the suction port of the circulation pump. Dependent arrangement involves lifting the tank to a height of not less than one meter.
Open the expansion tank is mounted at the top of the booster (main) riser in the attic. In case embed overflow pipe and nutrient discharge pipe. Design needs a thorough thermal insulation, as at low temperatures non-insulated tank and overflow can “thaw”. The estimated volume capacity (10% of total filling volume of the network) saves the heated coolant in the overflow and let the air out. The lack of the expansion tank open — type evaporation of the coolant.
Important! In heating systems with antifreeze as coolant, install expansion tanks closed-type, which provide a tight seal, maintaining the original volume and properties of the coolant.
Installation of stop valves in the heating system provides the ability to disable the network segment or the equipment for prevention, repair or replacement. Ball valves installed on the risers, before and after heating devices, pumps, manifolds, boiler, boiler.
Safety valves — check and safety valve, automatic air vent, balancing valve. Protect the pipeline from throttling flows and water hammer heating system (pump, radiator, boiler). Shut-off valves stops fuel flow when triggered sensors-gas analyzers, a power failure and the cessation of circulation through the heat exchanger.
Control valves (electronic or Electromechanical adjusting the valve, the tap-controller) align the indicators in the heating system.
The main condition for the valve and fittings in the heating system, the fitting should provide the proper throughput with less loss of pressure and tightness of branches, bends, diameter transitions in the pipeline.
Gerostrata: working principle, purpose and calculation. A method of optimizing the heating system in a private home. Device connection hydrocracy and distribution of a comb.
Gerostrata and manifold separated hydraulic circuits, reduce losses, increase throughput, distribute the heat load. Additionally serve as a place of installation of measuring devices of the security group (thermal sensors, flowmeters, pressure gauge, thermometer). The thermodynamic arrow removes dissolved gases and suspended particles from coolant.
The circulation pump in the heating system of a private house are driven by the flow of heated water in a closed circuit, so the height of the house does not have a significant impact on the capacity of the pump. In the “wet” circulation pumps the rotor is located in a heating duct. Working environment lubricates the parts and cools the engine. The principle of operation and functional characteristics of pumps depend on power, pressure (m), and feed efficiency
The formula for calculating the pump capacity:
Q=P/ ΔT* of 1.16 (m/s, l/s, m3/h),
The formula for calculating pressure:
Oboznacheniya of singledevice измеренияQМаксимальный pump flow (flow), l/s, m3/carmelina capacity of the boiler (passport data)kuttalam with heating devices, conditionally accept 20°C°C1,16Коэффициент specific gravity, vidyut*cannador in a closed loop системыПаскальRГидравлические loss in the pipeline (for two-storey house of 150 PA/m)PA/метрLСумма of the lengths of the contours in отопленииметрZƒКоэффициент roughness in the joints, valves, and devices for adjustment and protection from incorrect operation of the system.1.3 standard fittings and ball valves;
1.7 for the thermostatic, two – or three-way valves
The circulation pump is set traditionally on the return pipe before the boiler or take out the supercharger pressure to the bypass. Installation guide and operation of the device the manufacturer is developing.
Varieties of heating systems
The one-pipe heating system (scheme given below) is a serial connection of radiators in the layout of the heating circuit. The thermodynamics of the process based on larger diameter tubing (not less than 32 mm), the slope of the straights (0.5% of the length) and exceeding the radiator’s axis over the Central line of the boiler (H).
Self-regulation in the circuit occurs due to the temperature difference between the top/bottom of the radiator and the force of gravity. The flow passes in turn through each heater (tank line is previous supply the following radiator). The temperature decreases as the distance from the heat source, and the density of water, on the contrary, increases.
The figure shows a schematic diagram of heating with natural circulation.
Important! Single-tube circuit with natural circulation is used for heating of houses with an area less than 100 m2. The scheme eliminates the possibility of the device of warm floors and hot water.
Single-tube circuit of hooking up of heating appliances is known as the heating “Leningradka”. To increase the efficiency of the system scheme of “Leningradka” can be supplemented with a pump, valves, thermostats and valves, provides the load balancing between the pipes feed/return set the bypass.
Two-pipe heating system separates the feed line and return line. Layout improves system efficiency, reduces heat loss and hydraulic resistance.
Double tube circuit determines the parallel connection of inlet and outlet pipes of the heater. The temperature of the coolant in the radiator is aligned, heating is not dependent on the remoteness of the heat source.
Installing valves and taps-thermostats allows for repair and replacement of batteries without system shutdown. Adding twin-tube wiring, hydraulic module (arrow with coplanar manifold), it is possible to divide the contours of the radiator (high-pressure), Underfloor heating (low-pressure) and hot water. Technical deficiencies with proper thermal calculation in the system.
The collector in the circuit heating the house with forced circulation of coolant
Radial method of laying a pipeline and connecting the independent circuits in the Central part of the floor. The same length and diameter beams circuit provides hydraulic balance, reduce resistance and improve the heat transfer. The estimated volume flow in the independent chain links to achieve the installation of control valves (balancing valves), and circulation pumps inside the contours.
The increase in the consumption of materials and complex installation pays for a high level of accuracy of adjustment and ease of use.
The distribution of the coolant in height
Lower supply in the wiring diagram heating two-storey house involves the box of uprises in the ring of the first floor (basement or crawlway). When the lower twin-tube wiring of the distribution chain (feed) is laid in parallel with the ring discharge line (return line). The coolant rises, passes through the radiators, sinks risers on the return to gathering pipeline, which returns to the boiler.
Feeding risers raise above the radiators on the second floor and connects the air line with an automatic valve to remove air from the system. Each heating device additionally install the valve-the valve (faucet Majewski).
The upper wiring are distinguished by the direction of movement of the work-flow (top to bottom). The main riser (the pipe that rises from the boiler through the floor decks in the Central surge tank) supplies the coolant to the ring or dead-end sections of the upper wiring. Feeding risers down from the attic, served hot water in the batteries. Vertical risers collect the coolant in the return pipe, in which the thread is returned to the boiler.
The upper wiring is used in the southern regions of Russia. In the Central and Northern regions, the method of supply and distribution of coolant from the top requires the arrangement of a warm attic.
Two-pipe vertical heating system (with upper and lower ways of water supply) requires postoyannoi balancing. Possesses a hydraulic and temperature stability under the conditions of the setup.
Horizontal types of heating systems
Horizontal two-pipe distribution system is based on the collector connection of radiators. The comb is placed in a special Cabinet factory manufacturing. The system elements made of polypropylene equipped by the manufacturer.
Branded valves and fittings speed up the installation, improve the build quality twin-tube heating systems with the lower bussing from propylene. The device of individual frames provides independent operation of the elements, enhances the stability of the system.
Outdoor heating — type hot-water heating in which the heating elements, coils of plastic pipes, laid in outdoor construction. Each link is connected to a distribution comb the independent circuit for heating of polypropylene pipes. In a private house, which is equipped with Underfloor heating, balancing is required independent circulation circuits.
Important! Automatic adjustment must maintain the working environment temperature of outdoor heating is not more than 55 °C.
To understand the structure of the heating system your private home yourself is a snap. But for quality ensure a comfortable microclimate in cold weather it is better to consult specialists.