A rapidly developing construction industry constantly demands new technologies and materials. So many people are asking which blocks are best for construction home, since they have recently become the most popular and at a high level to compete with a known brick. The emergence of a new type of masonry materials was largely due to the desire to speed up the process of construction and reduce its complexity.
- 1 What are the blocks for building a house: the main types and characteristics
- 1.1 Defining characteristics and their influence on consumer choice
- 2 Concrete blocks: the operational characteristics and scope of application
- 3 lightweight Aggregate blocks: properties, advantages and disadvantages
- 4 gas Silicate blocks and basic criteria for their use
- 4.1 the advantages and disadvantages of silicate blocks
- 5 the Construction of houses of aerated concrete blocks: advantages and disadvantages
- 5.1 Pay attention to the labeling: main parameter of selection
- 6 Foam: optimal ratio of price and quality
- 7 Which blocks to choose for building a house: the advantages and disadvantages of polystyrene
- 8 Special qualities of the slag and its application in concrete industry
- 8.1 the Pros and cons of cinder blocks
- 9 Environmentally friendly concrete blocks
- 9.1 Solomennoye blocks: should we be afraid?
- 10 the Construction of houses of ceramic blocks
- 11 Construction of non-residential premises from blocks
- 11.1 Construction of the baths blocks: the quick guide
- 12 Which blocks are best for building a house: the correct calculation of the material
What are the blocks for building a house: the main types and characteristics
Larger in comparison with a brick, the size of the building blocks give the opportunity several times faster to produce masonry, and their relatively light weight facilitates work. This quality has given a significant boost when introducing them to the market.
There are several classifications of blocks for construction. Depending on the product dimensions they can be divided into the following groups: small and large. The first group includes products with small size, low strength and conductivity of heat. The second group is represented by products with large size and high strength, and also the middle insulating characteristics.
More quality building blocks are classified according to the type of material used to manufacture them. The main component of all types is always concrete. Vary only by minor materials and production technology.
Here are the following groups:
- foam concrete;
- wood concrete;
Defining characteristics and their influence on consumer choice
Considering more all kinds of blocks for construction, you need to focus on their core technical properties. This density, thermal conductivity, compressive strength, frost resistance. They are decisive in the selection of the right material. Based on these parameters and dimensions, is the correct calculation of the number of blocks for house construction.
Always it is important to consider all types of work, since the different blocks fit exactly your goal. It is necessary to focus on a specific course: is this simply insulation, partition, or more massive supporting structure. What kind of construction would apply to this material: capital construction in the form of, for example, house or garage, or a simpler version of a summer shower or outbuildings. And of course another factor: how much are the blocks for building a house.
Concrete blocks: the operational characteristics and scope of application
This type of block was the first on the production line. It is very common to use, especially where require high strength construction. Depending on the used type of concrete it is possible to allocate following groups: FBS, FB and FBP.
There is a government standard in which the size of blocks for construction is clearly defined. This gives you the ability to accurately calculate costs for building construction. The above stamps can be solid structure or longitudinal cut-outs designed for the laying of communications.
The most significant advantage of these types of blocks is the ease of use. In most cases, they are applicable for Foundation. Thus, using this technology can greatly facilitate the process. No need to pour concrete, bringing a lot of additional equipment, will not have to wait for the time of its solidification in order to continue further work.
Price concrete block size 390х190х188 mm, differ only in the number of cracks in its structure, is from 40 to 55 rubles/pieces Smaller 390х80х188 and 390х90х188 mm have a value from 25 to 30 rubles./PCs.
Expanded clay concrete blocks: properties, advantages and disadvantages
In the manufacture of expanded clay lightweight concrete blocks as an impurity using concrete block. It is a porous material manufactured in the form of granules by firing clay. This mixture has given very unusual properties of new types of blocks, through which they have won due recognition from the consumer.
Varying the amount of filler and end up with a unit of different strength. This leads to expanding the range of application of this material. The most popular density – from 500 to 1800 kg/cm3. The denser the material, the stronger and can be used for multi-storey buildings.
Construction of houses of lightweight aggregate concrete blocks has a number of positive qualities. Buildings are not deformed, are not subject to shrinkage, cracking. Low production cost is also a plus. The presence of a sufficient amount of the starting material and low-technological production costs generally provide the maximum benefit from its use.
Please note! It is because the manufacture of expanded clay lightweight concrete blocks does not require large material costs, many are trying to make it on their own “artisanal”. Failure to comply with some essential rules to yield low-quality material and discrepancy of the sizes of blocks for construction. Therefore, by purchasing this product, it is necessary to ensure the good reputation of the manufacturer.
This block also needs insulation finishing materials, and with the outside. It will give a positive effect to increase thermal conductivity and increase the life of the building.
The price of lightweight aggregate blocks depends on their size and purpose. On the hollow block wall, which is approximately 390х190х188 mm, it ranges on average from 33 to 50 rubles/piece and depends on the number of voids-cracks in the material.
Solid unit has the most popular sizes 390х190х188 mm, and its price is slightly higher, approximately 57 RUB/piece Partition of this type often represented in the size of 390х90х188 mm and the price range varies from 25-30 rubles./PCs.
Gas silicate blocks and basic criteria for their use
Construction of houses from silicate blocks have become very popular lately. The material, concrete, made from cement, nehalennia lime, silica sand and aluminum powder in the autoclave method under certain temperature and pressure. In the process of mixing these components produces a large quantity of hydrogen that when solidification gives the finished product a cellular structure.
The advantages and disadvantages of silicate blocks
The positive qualities of silicate blocks the following:
- they have a small mass and therefore the construction will be much easier than, for example, made of brick. This property makes it possible to reduce the pressure on the Foundation. Means directly to the skeleton, you can schedule less capital, that saves money;
- low level of conductivity will provide higher temperature in the internal space;
- a variety of shapes and sizes makes this material popular. Not limited to specific size ranges, manufacturers are expanding the range of consumption. Also quite a popular design with additional grooves and groove connections;
- the large size aerated concrete block for house construction and their clear smooth faces significantly speed up the process of construction;
- the use of special adhesive mortars for masonry, which simply diluted with water in certain proportions, also saves time;
- the silicate due to its structure can be easily sawing, handling, laying all sorts stroebe;
- high fire resistance is in the first place in security issues.
Despite a number of the above positive qualities can be identified and some negative: the cellular structure of the material gives not only advantages but also disadvantages. It clearly lowers the density, compression and stretching. Therefore, the maximum number of floors of such buildings shall not exceed 2. Otherwise experiencing a heavy load, the lower the ranks will begin to collapse and shrink. Not exclude the appearance of cracks.
Please note! To increase the strength of the walls, experts recommend to reinforce the construction of steel reinforcement.
Blocks of this type in the dimensional range 60х25х50 and 60х25х40 mm are on average from 30 to 206 rubles./PCs. the Increase in the latter parameter increases the price. Size 60х30х10, 60х30х20 and 60х30х25 have a value of 30, 58 and 75 RUB./PCs. respectively. The most expensive are the largest 60х37,5×25 mm, which have a price 210-233. of/piece and 60х40х25 mm 225-240. of/piece
Construction of houses of aerated concrete blocks: advantages and disadvantages
In the same way as in the case of silicate blocks, the construction of aerated concrete begins with the definition of what is necessary to obtain the result: main walls, partition two-storey array or insulation of existing buildings. Based on the tasks, you just need to buy blocks to build a house of the desired density. And also take care of the exterior walls. It must not only provide acceptable appearance of the structure, but also to minimize the coefficient of moisture absorption.
Aerated concrete blocks are manufactured with the autoclave method. They consist of cement, lime, gypsum and aluminum powder. As in the case of silicate species between the constituent components occurs massive chemical reaction, hydrogen is released which turns the cellular structure of the material.
After complete solidification of the aerated concrete is cut into desired size blocks for house construction using strings. Therefore, the obtained result is a geometrically perfect straight faces. This is important, since the clutch will be very little gaps at the seams that will provide an additional percentage of heat.
This type of blocks has another attractive feature. Thanks to its special structure it is easily cut with an ordinary saw. This way you can quickly adjust the settings and get the right size of concrete block for house construction.
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Please note the markings: basic parameter selection
Aerated concrete blocks are very popular today. Numerous proposals of manufacturers provide the ability to use this material not only for walls but for ceilings, lintels for Windows and doors. Large range of sizes gives you the opportunity to build the whole structure from these blocks.
As with the other types of blocks, aerated concrete products can have mounting tabs for easy operation. This connection will give maximum adhesion and the desired rate of heat conduction.
Choosing the material, pay attention to the labeling. It is marked with the Latin letter D after it, and standing figures. These numbers indicate the density of the block. Thus, the most applicable are the brand D500-D900 that when the amount of 600х250х200 mm weigh 18 kg and thus can replace 20 PCs of bricks.
Foam concrete: the optimal ratio of price and quality
Concrete block refers to cellular building materials. He has all their qualities. It is made from a mixture of concrete and foam. Foam is prepared in special generator and then poured directly into the cement. It envelops and thereby closes all of the cells in the structure. After the mixture is put in a cassette and left to harden at ambient temperature. No special thermal influence on the material is not provided.
Please note! The foam needs to “stand” on average, 28 days from the date of manufacture, in order to harden and to obtain the necessary strength.
Many developers note best price of blocks for building a house: buy foam products can any private developer. They give you the ability to easily display, for example, any figure of the arch or partition.
When considering which blocks better for building a house: often compared to gas concrete and foam concrete. This question has no single answer, but it is worth considering a few points:
- aerated concrete blocks resemble a sponge. Their pore-cells are not closed, as a consequence they actively absorb and retain trapped the moisture in them. In this regard, the foam blocks with a completely closed and concentrated only inside cells are in a more advantageous position;
- if the imbibed moisture still impose the freezing temperatures of the environment, we get a disappointing result for concrete: it will crack and shrink;
- a foam is less dense, it contains more cells that are filled with air. Therefore, it is much better retain heat;
- for the manufacture of concrete blocks used more professional equipment that gives you the opportunity to have precise dimensions and the right face products.
Foam concrete block depending on its density in the most popular size 600х300х200 mm has a value of from 95 to 120 RUB./PCs. of Course, that material with high density has the highest price. If you increase at least one of the dimensional parameters, for example, to 600х400х200 mm, the price is 120-170 rubles./PCs.
Which blocks to choose for building a house: the advantages and disadvantages of polystyrene
This blocks relatively recently appeared on the market of construction materials. He deserved popular with developers. It is very important the following characteristics:
- low thermal conductivity;
- environmental purity.
The manufacturing process takes place in a production environment and at home. A mixture of polystyrene beads, cement, sand and additives for hardening is poured into the concrete mixer in a clearly defined sequence, mix. Then poured into a prepared mold for curing for about a day under natural conditions. After 24 hours, the blocks can be removed by gently spread out on a flat surface until dry.
All polystyrene concrete blocks can be divided into two types:
- with facing. They do not require additional finishing of the facade, as one side can be made in the form of stone, marble or granite. The important point is the absence of any additional adhesives. This layer of the facing side – part of the concrete;
- bricks are used for walls. The cost of blocks for building a house of polystyrene is approximately two times less than the cost of brick.
Polystyrene block size 600х300х250 mm has a price of 120 to 160 RUB./PCs. the Smaller block size 390х190х188 mm is 40-50 rubles./PCs.
Almost all the negative aspects of using this type of material is dependent on the correctness of its manufacture. If the blocks were made without strict adherence to the rules, the possibility of appearance of microcracks and shrinkage increases significantly.
Plus, you must add a special fiber to result out a solid product. If these fibers to save, is not very rewarding unit. All that you need to consider when buying.
The special qualities of the slag and its application in concrete industry
The product obtained after a strong heat treatment of any raw material, called slag. It consists of an alloy of oxides. When using slag for the production of concrete blocks take the material without any additional chemical compounds.
It is important to properly prepare the slag for use. It needs to vylezat about six months under the open sky. This will allow natural rainfall to wash from the remains of the impurities sulfur and lime. It will be good if its several times moved from place to place. Such action will also contribute to the exclusion of all unnecessary.
Manufacture of slag concrete blocks takes place with the use of slag sand (he gives extra density) and gravel (gives extra ease). In the finished product about 2/3 of the cement and 1/3 of the lime plus the required amount of slag.
At observance of all necessary norms and requirements, price blocks for the construction of the house will be very acceptable. It’s a pretty good ratio quality-price.
The main characteristics of the data blocks is its brand strength and density. There are the following brands:
- M10 is used for insulation;
- M25 M 35 – suitable for the construction of partitions low bearing capacity;
- M50 and above are used for the construction of load-bearing walls.
The pros and cons of cinder blocks
The advantages of cinder blocks in front of the bricks are relatively light weight. Creates less pressure on the Foundation and other supporting structures. Thereby extends the life of buildings. Like other types of blocks, they greatly speed up the process of building, due to its size.
Cons can be highlighted even at the stage of production: a long period of time for preparation of the material, and for a long time to achieve the desired rate of solidification. Only a month later it reaches only 50% of this value. For full compliance it will need year.
Used for interior partitions cinder blocks have a size of 390х90х190 mm and 17-35 are RUB./For constructions of different purpose use product size 390х240х190 mm, material has voids camera and worth 50-80 rubles./PCs. For objects with high load using a solid material 390х190х190 mm and 35-80 value. of/piece of cinder blocks with the same size and with different number of cameras used for the construction of outer walls of houses. They cost about 34-55. of/piece
Environmentally friendly concrete blocks
Wood concrete blocks belong to the group of the wall units. They consist of 80% wood. Change in the composition of all units remains the cement and various chemical additives. For the proper manufacture of the wood should be well dried, to add a chemical in order to stop processes in organics, and to better bonding between the main components.
Arbolit can be produced in the form of blocks, slabs, panels and solutions for fill the monolithic surfaces. All of this can be used to create walls and insulation.
They have a number of advantages: architectural house, high sound insulation performance, environmentally friendly composition, are light weight and do not give large load to the Foundation, easy to handle and in the construction of small formats can be applied without reinforcement.
Disadvantages of the considered blocks is a necessity for veneer since the material itself is not very shape. Always pay attention to the manufacturer, as many wood processing plants engaged in this type of work. Because the process for them is not relevant, and the quality is worth considering.
Installation from concrete blocks is not a lot. Masonry is 1-1. 5 unit, applied the usual cement mortar, use the valve as desired. Experienced builders recommend that breaks out to dry every 3 series since the blocks are very light.
This environmentally friendly material in the price is one of the highest positions. Concrete block size 150х200х500 mm has cost about 60 RUB./PCs., 200х200х500 mm – 80 rubles/piece and 300х200х500 mm – 120 RUB./
Solomennoye blocks: should we be afraid?
A separate type concrete blocks are Solomennoye blocks. This is a new kind of products which are perfect followers of environmentally friendly materials. Their production has not yet been delivered widely, many skeptical, but its the consumer they already have.
In the manufacture of straw bales it is important to consider the quality of raw materials. The straw should be, first, a certain type and, second, is dry. The quality of the drying depends on all the future construction technology. If the material contains any percentage of moisture, it will not be possible to avoid decay, flowering, growth of harmful microorganisms.
A useful tip! This type of unit is only used for frame constructions. After all, no matter how filled with chopped straw with cement, it will still be a soft construction material.
However, they have a very long lifespan, and buy straw blocks for construction at very affordable prices.
Construction of houses of ceramic blocks
This type of block in its own interest. Depending on the component substances of the product can be divided into two types: porous and neporozuminnya. In the first group includes clay, foam waste and cellulose. Secondary additives under the effect of temperature burn, which subsequently appear microscopic pores in the structure of the finished block, which provides greater insulation.
Neporozuminnya blocks do not contain any additives. Therefore, they are heavier in weight and have less insulation. Both groups have high rates of physical and technical characteristics. Good thermal efficiency, soundproofing, environmental friendliness, ease of installation is also characterized by the ceramic block.
They can be used for the construction of multi-storey buildings, construction of interior partitions apply to complex architectural challenges. Ceramic in its properties does not need additional lining, warmth and waterproofing. This significantly reduces the estimate of expenses, by the exclusion from it of many additional materials.
Feature stacking ceramic blocks is to purchase special glue is mandatory. Cement mortar has a very liquid consistency that will fill the pores of the block and thereby minimize many of its beneficial qualities. And a special adhesive at a thickness of 2 cm is able to ensure the strength of the connection and not to bring harm.
Second comment, to keep in mind is the use of ligation of vertical joints of the mesh of fiberglass. She laid every 2 rows.
The ceramic block has the following sizes and costs: 25х120х65 mm – 12 RUB/piece 250х120х140 and 250х120х140 mm – 17 rubles/piece 250х250х140 and 80х500х219 mm – 45 rubles./PCs., 150х50х219 mm – 60 RUB./510х95х219 and mm – 67. of/piece
The construction of non-residential premises from blocks
Today very popular is the building blocks of not only residential premises but also, for example, street storerooms, shower or garage.
Let’s briefly review the main points of the building last. Most often, construction takes place on its own. Therefore, it is necessary to immediately determine what blocks are best for construction of the garage? Note that, in principle, suitable to any kind. You should evaluate the pros and cons and choose the most appropriate option for themselves.
Garage from foam or aerated concrete blocks must be reinforced in the construction. This will give the desired density. Not be avoided and walls, and immediately after construction. Since the porous structure will gain moisture and be frost that will soon deliver a lot of problems.
In the construction of slag or claydite concrete blocks act a bit different. Here don’t use nets, but just the top row of post holes up. Subsequently, these spaces are filled with gravel or concrete. Thus reinforced concreted design.
In all cases, pay special attention to the cap. The most correct will be the first few rows to lay out of sturdy red brick. A slightly different version: are already offered formwork is filled with concrete.
Please note! Before the commencement of construction always evaluate the soil quality. After evaluation of soil choose the correct option of the Foundation.
The construction of a bath out of the blocks quick start guide
Construction bath made of concrete blocks is a good alternative to wooden buildings. Taking into account the individual features of the structure, choose the right kind of products.
The most applicable of foam and aerated concrete blocks with his cellular structure will be greatly to absorb moisture. So you’ll have to spend a not small financial and labor costs for enhanced waterproofing of the walls on both sides.
Finishing the block walls done on both sides. Outside use wooden crate in which the cells are placed layers of heat-, steam – and waterproofing. As bath is the location of the maximum blagoobrazov, you should consider options a Scam – or keramzitobetona.
Construction begins with the Foundation. It is advantageous to apply in this strip monolithic concrete blocks laid on a bed of gravel and sand. The Foundation can feel a layer of roofing material. He will play the role of gidroizolyator.
Determine which blocks are best for construction of the baths, their walls hold rows with the obligatory linkage. It is best to use a special adhesive solution. This will give the opportunity to keep warm. The most common styling wide pablaka, which is quite advantageous on the part of the economy.
After the erection of walls, you need to think about the qualitative strengthening of the roof. To strengthen the fastening system uses a special beam, which is fastened to block wall using metal studs or anchors. This will allow the block wall to withstand heavy load.
Which blocks are best for building a house: the correct calculation of the material
In the construction of any premises to choose the blocks you need on several criteria:
- to determine the most suitable characteristics type.
- the quality of the material;
- justified and cost-effective price.
Considering, what better blocks to build a house, the price plays not the last role. Choosing the right quality material, any developer strive to make your business more profitable in material terms. The cost of blocks directly affect the size of blocks for construction.
Here come to the aid of familiarity with the prices of suppliers and, of course, the correct calculation of the required amount of material, which can be done by using an online calculator. Calculation of blocks to build a house in this case is correct and proper. To do this you must enter the required program parameters.
You can make calculations yourself using this formula:
V= (P x H x L) — S1 — S2,
where P – perimeter of base , H – height of wall, L – wall thickness, S1 is the area of doorways, S2 – the area of window openings.
Using this formula you can calculate the correct amount of blocks. Dividing this volume by the volume of one structural element can easily know the right amount of material.
In the construction of houses of bricks and blocks at the same time it is necessary to consider the quantity of both materials separately. After all the necessary calculations, you can easily buy blocks to build a house.
From all the above it follows that for high quality buildings should properly be determined with the required material, to correctly calculate the amount and not to miscalculate the price. You need to consider that each type of unit has its pros and cons. A specific answer to the question, what is the best option, can not be. It determines the specificity of the construction and its purpose.